- In the fall of 1986 the Russians shocked the world by
claiming that AIDS originated as a result of U.S. germ warfare. Although
this accusation quickly disappeared with Glasnost, the idea that AIDS
is a man-made disease continues to be a common belief among African Americans,
as well as conspiracy theorists. According to a New York Times poll (October
29, 1990), thirty percent of New York City blacks actually believe AIDS
is an ethno-specific bioweapon designed in a laboratory to kill black people.
- Although young white gay men were the first victims of
what was originally known as "gay-related immune deficiency syndrome"
(GRID), African Americans are now disproportionately afflicted with AIDS.
Black Americans make up 12% of the U.S. population but account for 35%
of AIDS cases. More than half of all women with AIDS (55%) are African
American; and nearly 60% of pediatric AIDS cases are black. AIDS is now
the leading cause of death for African American men between the ages of
35 and 44. 
- The idea that AIDS is a man-made disease is the theme
of books such as, AIDS & The Doctors of Death (1988) and Queer Blood
(1993) by Dr. Alan Cantwell; Emerging Viruses (1996) by Dr. Leonard
Horowitz; AIDS Tabu (1992, in Swedish) by Kwame Ingemar Ljungqvist, and
others. [2-5] These studies have been largely overlooked and ignored by
the mainstream media and medical journals.
- Creation of a Super Germ and Ethnic Bioweapons
- As evidence that HIV could be a man-made virus, researchers
cite testimony dating back to 1969 when Dr. Donald MacArthur, a Department
of Defense spokesman, appeared before a U.S. Congressional Hearing on
Chemical and Biological Warfare and declared that biowarfare experts could
develop a genetically engineered "super germ" that would be able
to effectively destroy the human immune system. He estimated that molecular
biologists could create this new infective microorganism within 5 to 10
years.  A decade later, in 1979, the first gay AIDS cases were reported
to the CDC in Atlanta, Georgia.
- In a scientific paper entitled "Ethnic Weapons,"
which appeared in the November 1970 issue of The Military Review, Swedish
geneticist Carl A. Larsen openly discussed biotechnologic advances that
would allow human cells to be "selectively quenched." Scientists
had already detected enzymatic differences in the composition of cells
from various racial and ethnic groups, and theorized how these differences
could be exploited to create bioweapons. For example, an enzyme deficiency
in Southeastern Asian populations could make them more "susceptible
to a poison to which Caucasoids are largely adapted." Larsen admitted
that "surrounded with clouds of secrecy, a systematic search for
new incapacitating agents in going on in many laboratories." Now,
almost 30 years later, one can only speculate on the ethno-specific (and
even sex-specific) bioweapons that have been developed in these biowarfare
- Recent studies indicate HIV is a particularly dangerous
virus for certain racial groups. In 1997 Stephen O'Brien and Michael Dean
reported on "AIDS-resistance genes" that enable European and
Americian-Caucasians to better resist HIV. Other ethnic groups, such as
African -Americans and East Asians have much less resistence. And black
Africans have absolutely no protective genes against the AIDS virus. 
- Vaccine Programs and the Outbreak of HIV
- Some researchers believe HIV was "introduced"
into African blacks through the World Health Organization's smallpox eradication
program in the late 1970s. In Magic Shots, Allan Chase writes that during
the years 1966-1977, the WHO utilized 200,000 people in forty countries-most
of them nondoctors-and spent $300 million to vaccinate people with 2.4
billion doses of smallpox vaccine. 
- On May 11, 1987, The London Times, one of the world's
most respected newspapers, published a front-page story entitled "Smallpox
vaccine triggered AIDS virus." The story suggested that African AIDS
was a direct outgrowth of the WHO smallpox eradication program. Robert
Gallo, the world's foremost AIDS researcher, was quoted as saying: "The
link between the WHO program and the epidemic is an interesting and important
hypothesis. I cannot say that it actually happened, but I have been saying
for some years that the use of live vaccines such as that used for smallpox
can activate a dormant infection such as HIV." Despite the importance
of these allegations, the smallpox story was killed and never appeared
in any major U.S. newspaper or magazine.
- The Origin of the Green Monkey Theory
- Until recently, the African green monkey theory of AIDS
origin (as proposed by Robert Gallo) has been accepted as fact. In his
book, Virus Hunting: AIDS, Cancer and the Human Retrovirus (1991), Gallo
explains the source of his theory. "Amazingly, in the early part of
my research on AIDS (early 1983) I was visited by Ann Guiduci Fettner,
a freelance writer who told me emphatically that the origins and epicenter
of the epidemic were in a river basin near Lake Victoria. She also stated
she believed the virus came from African green monkeys, apparently due
to her experiences in central Africa." 
- Fettner, along with microbiologist William Check, authored
The Truth About AIDS, one of the first books published on the epidemic.
According to notes on the book jacket, Fettner had served as health advisor
to the government of Kenya. However, in their book, published shortly before
Gallo's discovery of HIV in 1984, nothing is recorded about Fettner's experiences
in Africa. Green monkeys are never mentioned, and there is no suggestion
that AIDS originated in Africa. On the contrary, Fettner and Check conclude
that "AIDS started as an American disease." 
- Writing in Covert Action Bulletin, Robert Hatch claims
Gallo worked extensively with lab monkeys in the two decades before AIDS
erupted. He was a project officer of "a massive virus inoculation
program that began in 1962 and ran until at least 1976, and used more than
2,000 monkeys. The monkeys were injected with everything from human cancer
tissues to rare viruses, and even sheep's blood, in an effort to find a
transmissible cancer. Many of these monkeys succumbed to immunosuppresion
after infection with Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, the first immunosuppressive
retrovirus, a class of viruses that included the immunodeficiency AIDS
- During the 1970s, laboratory viruses were commonly forced
from one species of animal into another. In these experiments the so-called
"species barrier" was routinely breached, and new viruses were
created. During the 1977-1978 period ( and three years before AIDS became
"official"), the Special Virus Cancer Program (sponsored by the
National Cancer Institute where Gallo worked) produced 60,000 liters of
cancer-causing and immunosuppressive viruses, according to Hatch.
- Animal Virus Contamination and New "Human"
- Contamination of experiments with various animal viruses
is a constant threat in viral laboratories. Gallo himself has made serious
errors in identifying so-called human viruses that were later shown to
be animal virus contaminants. One notorious example was his 1975 discovery
of a "new" and "human" HL-23 virus. This virus eventually
proved to be three contaminating ape viruses (gibbon-ape virus, simian
sarcoma virus, and baboon endogenous virus). To this day Gallo claims he
has no idea how these three animal viruses contaminated his research. 
- Max Essex, a Harvard veterinarian and a leading proponent
of the green monkey theory, has also erred in virus identification. In
1986 Essex and his colleague Phyliss Kanki announced their discovery of
a "new" AIDS virus (HTLV-4) found in the blood of healthy West
Africans. In 1988, Essex's new "human" HTLV-4 virus turned out
to be a monkey virus that accidentally contaminated Essex's lab. The source
of the monkey virus contamination was traced to blood samples from a monkey
that was experimentally infected by an AIDS-like virus at the New England
Regional Primate Research Center in Southborough, Massachusetts. 
- To further complicate matters, a 1988 report from a
team of Japanese molecular biologists concluded there was no genetic relationship
between the African green monkey virus and the AIDS virus. 
- In February 1999, the green monkey theory was debunked
in a media blitz. Scientists now cite new genetic research which points
to a nearly extinct species of African chimpanzee as the origin of HIV.
No mention was made of the Japanese researchers whose genetic research
was ignored for over a decade.
- Chimps, Monkeys, and the Gay Hepatitis B Experiment (1978-1981)
- Blaming monkeys and chimpanzees for AIDS also conveniently
obscures the possible link between the gay hepatitis B vaccine experiments
(1978-1981) and the outbreak of AIDS in gay men shortly after the experiment
began. In addition, laboratory chimpanzees were used in the development,
testing and manufacture of the orginal hepatitis B vaccine. Because animal
virus contamination has plagued noted researchers like Gallo and Essex,
this also raises the possibility that a HIV-like chimp virus could have
"jumped species" during these vaccine trials in gay men.
- The gay hepatitis B vaccine experiment immediately preceded
the decimation of American homosexuals. In this experiment, a cohort of
over a thousand young gays was injected with the vaccine on multiple occasions
at the New York City Blood Center in Manhattan during the period from November
1978 to October 1979. Similar gay experiments, in which an additional
1,402 gay men were injected, were also conducted in San Francisco, Los
Angeles, Denver, St. Louis and Chicago, beginning in 1980 and ending in
October 1981. 
- Three months after the hepatitis experiment began in
New York City, the first cases of AIDS in Manhattan were reported to the
CDC. The first San Francisco AIDS cases appeared in that city in September
1980, six months after the hepatitis B experiment started there. In June
1981 the AIDS epidemic became "official."
- In an unusual move, all the gay blood specimens submitted
in the hepatitis vaccine experiment were retained by the Blood Center for
further study. When this blood was later retested for HIV antibodies,
it was discovered that HIV was first "introduced" into the gay
male population of New York City sometime around the year 1978-1979, the
same year the hepatitis B experiment began.
- In 1980, one year before the AIDS epidemic became official,
twenty percent of the Manhattan men in the vaccine trials were positive
for HIV!  In 1980 there were no reported cases of AIDS in Africa;
and the fact that 20% of the New York City gay men in the experiment were
HIV-positive in that year suggests that the virus was not "introduced"
from Africa. More likely is the possibility that HIV was introduced into
the gay community via the hepatitis B experiment.
- Kaposi's Sarcoma ("Gay Cancer") and a Second
"Emerging Virus" in AIDS
- The purple-colored skin tumors of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)
on the bodies of gay men quickly became the scarlet letter signifying AIDS.
Preceding the epidemic, and during the years 1973-1976 there were no reported
cases of KS in young men in New York City. After the hepatitis B experiment
the incidence of "gay cancer" skyrocketed. The first proven
AIDS-related case of KS occurred in 1979. By 1985 the incidence of KS
in "never-married men" in New York City increased 1850 times;
and in San Francisco the rate of KS increased over 2000 times! 
- Early in the epidemic Gallo linked "gay cancer"
to Central Africa because KS is a common endemic tumor in that area. However,
unlike gay American men with KS who were HIV-positive, the African cases
of endemic KS tested HIV-negative.
- In the past few years a new Kaposi's sarcoma-associated
virus (KSHV) is now thought to be the cause of this cancer. The virus has
supposedly been traced to a monkey tumor virus, known as herpes virus saimari.
This virus is also thought to be transmitted separately from HIV, meaning
that gay men in the late 1970s were infected with not one but two monkey
and chimp-originating viruses. How this supposed feat of nature was accomplished
has not been explained.
- Blaming Africa for American AIDS
- The idea that AIDS in the U.S. originated in Africa is
so firmly entrenched that it is extremely difficult to argue against that
view. However, there is no convincing evidence (aside from the pronouncements
of leading government-employed virologists) that AIDS in gay Americans
started in Africa. Furthermore, the idea of a black African heterosexual
disease suddenly transforming itself into a white homosexual disease in
the U.S. is a biological and sexual impossibility.
- In the Epidemiology of AIDS (1989), Thomas Quinn and
Jonathan Mann write that the first confirmed African cases were diagnosed
in European hospitals in 1983. This is four years after the first gay
cases were diagnosed in New York City!
- To prove that AIDS is not an old disease in Africa, a
team of scientists led by J.W. Carswell tested the blood of old, sexually-inactive
people living in geriatric homes in Kampala, Uganda's largest city and
the epicenter of AIDS in Africa. The elderly people's blood was tested
against 716 healthy, sexually-active adults living in the same city. Fifteen
percent of the healthy people were positive for HIV antibodies, but none
of the elderly people tested positive. This 1986 study indicated HIV had
not been in Uganda for a long time, as AIDS experts were proclaiming. The
team concluded: "The results presented here do not support the previous
suggestions that the virus might have originated in Uganda; on the contrary,
if interpreted correctly, they indicate it arrived in the country only
- Some scientists have proclaimed that HIV has existed
in Africa for decades, centuries, or even millenia. In 1989 another scientific
team investigated HIV antibodies infection among the semi-nomadic San bushpeople
living in the Central Kalahari desert in Botswana. The Sans are the oldest
race living in Africa. The team tested 150 San adults. No one tested positive
for HIV. 
- HIV infection and sexual preference
- Further compounding the supposed African origin of AIDS
are reports of differing "strains" of HIV which influence infectivity,
depending on sexual preference and the type of sexual penetration. The
American strain of HIV is subtype B, while the common African strain is
subtype D. If AIDS in gays came directly from Africa in the same time period,
as is widely believed, one might suspect that the strains would be similar,
but they are not.
- According to Robert Biggar and Philip Rosenberg, the
risk for HIV transmission in the U.S. is not as high for vaginal intercourse
as it is for anal sex. And the rate of transmission with vaginal intercourse
is thought to be twice as high when HIV-infected men have sex with women
than when HIV-infected women have intercourse with susceptible men.
Other research indicates that strains common in Africa and Asia tend to
be more easily transmitted heterosexually.
- Biowarfare and Covert Experimentation
- Sadly, the U.S. government and its scientists have a
well-documented history of secret experimentation on humans, particularly
- Physicians and scientists allied to biowarfare research
are sworn to secrecy and silence. In the U.S. "top secret" and
classified medical experimentation continues to be promoted by the CIA,
the CDC, the Department of Defense, the military, and by leading medical
- In A Higher Form of Killing (1982), Robert Harris and
Jeremy Paxman expose many of these medical abuses perpetrated against unsuspecting
civilains by the U.S. military and the CIA during the 1950s and 1960s.
For example, in the covert "MKULTRA" mind-altering experiments,
the victims were lured to hotel rooms for sexual encounters with prostitutes,
and were drugged and monitored by CIA agents. The authors write: "In
August 1977 the CIA admitted to no less than 149 subprojects, including
experiments to determine the effects of different drugs on human behavior;
work on lie-detectors, hypnosis and electric shock; and the surreptitious
delivery of drug-related materials. Forty-four colleges and universities
have been involved, fifteen research foundations, twelve hospitals and
clinics, and three penal institutions." 
- Human Radiation Experiments and Government Abuse
- With the recent release of classified documents by President
Bill Clinton, details have been revealed about unethical and inhumane radiation
experiments conducted during the Cold War years between 1944 and 1974.
- Over 4,000 covert experiments conducted by the Atomic
Energy Commission, the Department of Defense, the Department of Health
Education and Welfare, the Public Health Service (now the CDC), the National
Institutes of Health, the Veterans Adminstration, the CIA and NASA, are
documented in The Human Radiation Experiments: The Final Report of the
President's Advisory Commitee, published in 1996 by Oxford Press.
- Some of these inhumane and previously classified experiments
include: The secret injections of 18 Americans with plutonium, one of the
most toxic radioactive substances known to man, during the years 1945-1947.
Exposing more than 100 Alaskan villagers to radioactive iodine during the
- Feeding 49 retarded and institutionalized teen-agers
radioactive iron and calcium in their cereal during the years 1946-1954.
- Exposing about 800 pregnant women in the late 1940s to
radioactive iron to determine the effect on the fetus.
- Injecting 7 newborns (six were black) with radioactive
- Exposing the testicles of more than 100 prisoners to
cancer-causing doses of radiation.
- Exposing almost 200 cancer patients to high levels of
radiation from cesium to cobalt. The AEC finally stopped this experiment
in 1974. Administering massive doses of full body radiation to cancer patients
hospitalized at the General Hospital in Cincinnati, Baylor College in Houston,
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospital in New York City, and the U.S. Naval
Hospital in Bethesda, during the 1950s and 1960s.
- Secret Science and Medical Research
- To this day there are no adequate safeguards to protect
people from covert government experimentation. Since the mid-1970s we have
witnessed the spectacular rise of genetic engineering and molecular biology,
as well as the concomitant outbreak of new infectious diseases of obscure
origin. Diseases such as AIDS, chronic fatigue syndrome, the "Four
Corners" lung disease first discovered on Navajo land, and the emergence
of dozens of unprecedented viruses and diseases never before seen on the
- Biological warfare programs are now inextricably linked
to governments and political agendas. By law, scientists employed in
these classified programs cannot speak freely or reveal secrets. By necessity,
these scientists must promote the government's disinformation and propaganda
- It is well-documented that African Americans have been
mistreated in the past as research subjects. Surely it would not be unresonable
to suspect that gays would be treated similarly. Is it just a coincidence
that when thousands of gay men came out of the closet in the 1970s they
would be the first to fall victim to a chimp and a monkey cancer-causing
virus that "jumped species"?
- Medical science has a long history of medical experimentation
and cover-up, and even murder. And the development and testing of designer
"super germs" for biological warfare purposes is not a paranoid
- There is circumstantial evidence pointing to AIDS as
a man-made disease. Ignoring this research will not make the idea go away.
On the contrary, ignoring this research makes a mockery of medical science
as a field of open and honest inquiry.
- REFERENCES: (21 references)
- 1. "Black churches urged to do more in fight against
AIDS," by Karen
- Robinson-Jacobs, Los Angeles Times, February 21,
- 2. Cantwell Jr, A: AIDS & The Doctors of Death: An
Inquiry into the Origin of
- the AIDS Epidemic. Los Angeles: Aries Rising Press,
- 3. Cantwell Jr, A: Queer Blood: The Secret AIDS Genocide
Plot. Los Angeles:
- Aries Rising Press, 1993.
- 4. Horowitz LG: Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola.
Rockport, MA: Tetrahedron
- Publishing Group, 1996.
- 5. Ljungqvist KI: AIDS Tabu. Stockholm: Carlssons Bokforlag,
- 6. Testimony delivered in Washington before a Subcommittee
- House of Representatives, Department of Defense Appropriations
- on July 1, 1969.
- 7. O'Brien SJ, Dean M: In search of AIDS-resistence genes.
- American, September 1997, pp 28-35.
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Retrovirus. New York:
- Basic Books, 1991.
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- Winston, 1984.
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Scientist, February 12, 1987, pp
- 13. "Scientist warns of threat from new AIDS virus,"
by Robert Steinbrook,
- Los Angeles Times, February 18, 1988.
- 14. "Research refutes idea that human AIDS virus
originated in monkeys," by
- Robert Steinbrook, Los Angeles Times, June 2, 1988.
- 15. Cantwell Jr A: "The Hepatitis B Vaccine Trials,"
in Cantwell Jr A: AIDS
- & the Doctors of Death: An Inquiry into the Origin
of the AIDS Epidemic.
- Los Angeles: Aries Rising Press, 1988, pp 65-80.
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- 18. Carswell JW, Sewankambo N, Lloyd D, et al: How long
has the AIDS virus
- been in Uganda? Lancet 1, May 24, 1986, p 1217.
- 19. Ebbesen P, Osie W, Morgan ET: San people (Bushmen)
from the Central
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and HIV-2. Journal of
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1): S219-223, 1993.
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Secret Story of
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- [Dr. Cantwell is a medical researcher and author
of AIDS & The Doctors of
- Death, and Queer Blood, both published by Aries Rising
Press, PO Box 29532,
- Los Angeles, CA 90029, USA. These books can be ordered
on the Internet @
- Amazon.com, or through Upper Access @ 1-800-356-9315.
- Kwame Ingemar Ljungqvist is the author of AIDS Tabu,
- Carlssons Bokforlag, Stora Nygatan 31, 111 27 Stockholm,
Sweden. He is the
- Director of the Swedish AIDS Group Against Racism (SARA),
- S-790 43 Solleron, Sweden. E-mail address: email@example.com
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