Zygmunt Bauman is UK-based
University of Leeds Emeritus Professor of Sociology. His work spans five
decades. He's now aged 87.
His wide-ranging interests include consumerism, globalization, ethics,
power, the status of workers, intellectuals in society, and nature of
He's best known for analyzing links between modernity and the Jewish
holocaust, postmodern consumerism, and discussing broad moral/political
He distinguishes between earlier modernity forms ("solid modernity")
and what's commonplace today. It's characterized by fragile social relations,
he believes. They're created and broken by neoliberal harshness.
His metaphorical use of "liquidity" captures the shifting character
of individualized/globalized lives. His new book is titled "Culture in
a Liquid Modern World."
Among other topics it discusses culture in a globalized world and
what's happening in today's Europe. He describes utopia's end. In recent
decades it's been privatized.
It once meant imagining well-designed societies. They guaranteed
meaningful, dignified, gratifying lives. Today's world is inhospitable.
It's beyond redemption, he believes.
In May 2012, he discussed today's Europe. After decades of rising
expectations, he said, "present-day newcomers to adult life confront"
them falling. "Individualized utopia coincides with the collapse and demise
of the idea and hope for a 'good society.' "
It's happening "much too steeply and abruptly for any hope of a
gentle and safe decent," he added.
Today's youth face "long-term unemployment and long stretches of
'rubbish jobs.' " They're "well below their skills and expectations."
"This is the first postwar generation facing the prospect of downward
Nothing prepared them for today's reality. Hopes are frustrated
and stillborn. University degrees once "promised plum jobs." No longer.
Once attainable dreams go unfulfilled.
What's true of Europe applies to Israel and much more. Bauman had
his say. Haaretz discussed him.
He has family in Israel. He once lived there. He was briefly a citizen.
He taught at Tel Aviv University and the University of Haifa. Since then,
he said, Israelis "expressed their approval of high-handedness over high-mindedness."
They "vot(ed) into power people who made sure that peaceful Israeli-Palestinian
coexistence is not in the cards."
He last visited 20 years ago. He'll return briefly. He accepted
an invitation from the Ruppin Academic Center (RAC) and Israel Sociological
On February 18, he addressed ISS' annual conference. He discussed
inequality in Israel. More on that below.
Sociologist Yehouda Shenhav said he wants "to return sociology to
morality and morality to sociology." He "seeks the moral and political
He's a "sociologist who does not frequent the corridors of power,
who critiques war as immoral, who is not infected by the nationalist militancy
that pervades his country, and who assails the disintegration of the welfare
state, xenophobia, and the instrumentalization of the social discourse."
Bauman strongly criticizes neoliberal harshness. He disputes commonly
held trickle down notions.
"One of the widely used moral justifications for free-market economics
is that the pursuit of individual profits also provides the best mechanism
for the pursuit of common good," he said.
"This has, however, been cast in doubt and all but belied by a rising
tide of research findings and official statistics documenting the fast-growing
distance that separates those at the top from those at the bottom of the
"In jarring opposition to political pronouncements intended to be
recycled into popular belief, the wealth amassed at the top of society
has blatantly failed to 'trickle down' and make the rest of us richer,
make us feel more secure and more optimistic about our and our childrenís
future, or make us happier."
"Almost everywhere in the world the rich, and particularly the very
rich, are getting richer, whereas the poor, and particularly the very
poor, are getting poorer - most certainly in relative, but in a growing
number of cases, also in absolute terms."
"Moreover, people who are rich get richer just because they are
rich. People who are poor get poorer just because they are poor."
"Nowadays, inequality continues to increase by its own logic and
momentum. It needs no more help or kick from outside - no outside stimuli,
pressures or blows."
"Social inequality seems ever closer to becoming the first perpetuum
mobile, which after innumerable failed attempts humans have finally managed
to invent and set in motion."
Israel mirrors the worst of Western societies. It's one of the most
unequal OECD countries. Its privileged do extraordinarily well. Most others
fall far behind. The gap between rich and poor expands exponentially.
"The number of people living below the poverty line rose rapidly
- including among working people, whose wages stagnated or declined as
pensions, unemployment benefits and income protection schemes, meant to
defend them against falling into poverty, were all severely cut," said
In 1971, he left Israel. He did so disillusioned and disappointed.
He criticized Israel's conquest of Arab territories.
Before her death, his wife Janina called Israel a "nationalist country.
We had just run away from nationalism," she said. "We didn't want to go
from being victims of one nationalism to being perpetrators of another."
Bauman decries how Israel exploits the holocaust. It does so for
political reasons. Jewish suffering isn't unique. Calling it special belittles
many other human tragedies. Some far exceed what Jews endured.
Claiming Israel faces potential holocaust 2.0 leads to insularity
and isolationism. It prevents reconciliation with Palestinians, other
Arabs, and international community countries.
Bauman compared Israel's Separation Wall to how Nazi Germany ghettoized
Warsaw. He did so in the context of separating one population from another.
He called building the Wall "Hitler's posthumous triumph." It's
trying to accomplish what he failed to achieve - "to set Jews and the
rest of the world at loggerheads and make their peaceful coexistence all
but inconceivable or impossible."
"In our collective unconscious, the image of a wall is established
as the archetype of exclusion, break of communication, degradation, denial
of human rights."
"Were that not the case, it is doubtful whether the idea of building
a wall around Israel and its settlements on the occupied land would occur
to Israeli leaders as the means to deal with a vicinity of undesirables,
and become an ultimate symbol of unilateral but irrevocable separation
and refusal to communicate."
"The higher and tighter the wall, the slimmer the chance of talking
to each other, empathizing with each otherís pains and sufferings, and
coming to terms with each other - let alone working toward a mutually
agreeable and beneficial mode of coexistence."
Bauman today feels much like he did decades earlier. Israel goes
out of its way to spurn peace. Protracted occupation morally denigrates
"Militarized political thought, debate and action" don't work. Israel
lost its moral bearings. It lost the capacity to deal with social problems.
"It pains me, pains me tremendously, to watch the forgetting and
abandoning of our collective mission and duty, imposed upon us by the
tragic Jewish history: the duty to alert the world - lest it forget -
to the evil endemic in all and any nationalist hatred, and to be in the
forefront of the ongoing fight against its breeding."
"And of the ambition of the founders of Israel to serve as 'a light
unto the nations.' " It never was and isn't now.
Bauman spoke out earlier on the holocaust, Zionism, and Israeli
belligerence. Its leaders prioritize conflict, not peace, he said. They
manipulate holocaust memories to justify occupation harshness.
They do unto others what they deplore having been done to them.
Bauman is a holocaust survivor. He escaped Nazi-occupied Poland.
He managed to get into Soviet Russia's sector. He was forced out of Eastern
Europe during Poland's 1968 anti-Semitic purges.
He calls today's Israel a "belligerently intolerant, faith-driven
ethno-state." Peace is a non-starter. Advancing it never existed and doesn't
now. "It did not die. It was killed." It was done so from inception.
Occupation harshness is "toxic" and "corrosive," he says. It corrupts
the "ethics and moral scruples of the occupiers." Challenging fortress
Israel is considered "criminal and treason."
War and readiness for it erode democratic freedoms. Israeli leaders
fear peace. Without conflicts they "don't know how to govern." They exploit
holocaust memories as "a get-out-jail card for their own depravity and
absolution of their sins."
They do so for ones they've "already committed and (others) they
are going to commit."
Bauman's "radically opposite way of 'commemorating' the holocaust
can be summarized as follows: It is forbidden to stay silent in the face
of Israeli crimes and their persecution of Palestinians exactly because
the fate of Jews in Europe had similar beginnings - discrimination,
pogroms, ghettoes, concluding with the Shoah."
Holocaust survivors have a mission, he added. They're obligated
"to prevent another disgracing of civilization."
Israeli leaders threaten one. It's ongoing in slow motion. "Hurting
people debases and morally destroys those who are doing" it.
It initiates a process anthropologist Gregory Bateson called "schizmogenesis."
It's a "sequence of action and reaction where each consecutive behavior"
exaggerates another. Doing so causes "ever more deepening schism."
Israel's been shooting itself in the foot for decades. What can't
go on forever won't. Bauman is one of many Jewish intellectuals speaking
candidly on today's Israel.
He wants views he considers vital heard and understood. He was invited
to Israel to express them. Advanced age didn't silence him. In November,
he'll be 88.
Stephen Lendman lives in Chicago and can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
His new book is titled "Banker Occupation: Waging Financial War
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