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More Damning Science On Squalene
And Related Adjuvants

From Gayle Eversole BSc
Jeff - I found another 8 articles that show squalene and related type of adjuvants to be a cause of (lipoid ) pneumonia and another one linked with auto inmmmune problems (lupus), one showing elevated cholesterol.
Another article finds that there is NO benefit to use the adjuvant.
These articles date back to 1991.  Here is one of them...
Biomed Pharmacother. 2004 Jun;58(5):325-37.
Autoimmunity Induced By Adjuvant Hydrocarbon Oil Components Of Vaccine
Kuroda Y, Nacionales DC, Akaogi J, Reeves WH, Satoh M.
Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, ARB-R2-156, 1600 SW Archer Road, P.O. Box 100221 Gainesville, FL 32610-0221, USA.
Adjuvant oils such as Bayol F (Incomplete Freund's adjuvant: IFA) and squalene (MF59) have been used in human and veterinary vaccines despite poor understanding of their mechanisms of action. Several reports suggest an association of vaccination and various autoimmune diseases, however, few were c onfirmed epidemiologically and the risk of vaccination for autoimmune diseases has been considered minimal. Microbial components, not the adjuvant components, are considered to be of primary importance for adverse effects of vaccines. We have reported that a single intraperitoneal injection of the adjuvant oils pristane, IFA or squalene induces lupus-related autoantibodies to nRNP/Sm and -Su in non-autoimmune BALB/c mice. Induction of these autoantibodies appeared to be associated with the hydrocarbon's ability to induce IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, suggesting a relationship with hydrocarbon's adjuvanticity. Whether this is relevant in human vaccination is a difficult issue due to the complex effects of vaccines and the fact that immunotoxicological effects vary depending on species, route, dose, and duration of administration.
Nevertheless, the potential of adjuvant hydrocarbon oils to induce autoimmunity has implications in the use of oil adjuvants in human and veterinary vaccines as well as basic research. Copyright 2004 Elsevier SAS
PMID: 15194169 (PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE)
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