- You know my research/books documenting the man-made origin
of AIDS -- here is what my colleague, Leonard Horowitz, is experiencing
regarding his man-made origin of AIDS research and its possible censorship
by the United Nations AIDS group. Note my citations in his bibliography
recorded in the Journal of Medical Hypothesis, May 2001.
- Best regards,
- Alan Cantwell M.D. author of, AIDS & The
Doctors of Death and Queer Blood
- FROM DR. LEONARD HOROWITZ
- Dear Friends and Colleagues in the Healthy World Network,
- A United Nations sponsored AIDS group, hosted by the
UNAIDS Secretariat to the UN Theme Group on AIDS, is considering censoring
my research determinations and publications, along with Internet links
to vaccination theories on the origin of HIV/AIDS.
- Suppressing Internet free speech is troubling, but censoring
scientific facts concerning AIDS and its apparent man-made, vaccine-linked,
origin is despicable and genocidal.
- The following are my communications to these UN officials,
and international AIDS COMMUNITY members, regarding efforts to censor my
peer reviewed scientific publications and investigation determinations
into the chimpanzee link to human AIDS and the hypothesis of vaccination
initiation of HIV/AIDS following hepatitis B inoculations of gay men in
New York City and Central Africans between 1970 and 1974. This, better
than any other theory, explains the triggering of the AIDS pandemic in
the late 1970s and early 80s in these specific parts of the world.
- Please kindly read and forward this information as widely
as possible so that we may shed the light of truth into the dark deceptions
of vaccine industrialists controlling medical and "public health"
prostitutes undermining the legitimacy, integrity, and credibility of health
- In addition, if you have not viewed my latest documentary
film, In Lies We Trust: The CIA, Hollywood & Bioterrorism, available
now online for free viewing without copyright restrictions, please do so
at your earliest convenience at
- Thank you for your educational outreach and activism.
Together we shall overcome ignorance and adversity in co-creating a healthy
- In the Spirit of health and human service.
- Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H., D.N.M., D.M.M.
- Overseer and Managing Member
- Healthy World Distributing, LLC
- Letter to the International AIDS COMMUNITY (email@example.com):
- The sun is claimed to cure infantile jaundice. But in
America, if you claim your use of a similar spectrum of light frequencies
produced by an Ott Lamp cures this and more, you are charged with a crime,
sent to court; maybe to jail, because the LIGHT is legally considered a
DRUG if you simply state this claim in the media. Is this scientific? Is
this even reasonable? Is there any evidence that LIGHT is a DRUG?
- The Moderator of AIDS COMMUNITY demonstrates similar
blind bias, and grossly disservices the AIDS COMMUNITY by his condescending
rhetorical remark degrading this author who has better things to do with
his time and life than serve those "without ears to hear, nor eyes
to see" the truth that "shall set you free."
- I provided for the AIDS COMMUNITY's evaluation of scientific
material the facts that were published in the UK in Journal of Medical
Hypothesis. (See attachment below.) That scientific peer reviewed article
is damning enough for any fool to be persuaded to investigate further and
open debate. Apparently, Dr. Moderator, who encourages censorship, has
less intelligence and professional integrity than a common idiot.
- Every physician knows that diagnosis precedes treatment,
and that the diagnostic process involves a differential diagnosis THEORIZING
what ails the patient. Here, as the late great AIDS Czar for the World
Health Organization, Jonathan Mann, said, "Rather than a medical problem,
AIDS is a socio-political IMPOSITION." His statement heralds a critical
component in the differential diagnosis of this hideous pandemic; one that
The Moderator wishes to strike from the record while assailing its proponents.
- Diagnosis means "to see through" to the root
cause of the disorder. With blind bias, you can't see through anything,
including the root of this disorder called AIDS; as well evidenced by The
Moderator's written statement reflecting such blind bias. This totally
unscientific and undermining attitude breaches the professional and scientific
integrity of the AIDS Community. Efforts to effectively diagnose and treat
this world's worst cancer complex halt here.
- For all we know, IF my scientific thesis is accurate
as the compelling evidence supporting it has proven to be by peer-reviewed
scientific scrutiny, THEN the origin of AIDS through contaminated vaccinations,
specifically the hepatitis B produced initially in chimpanzees and rhesus
monkeys between 1970 and 1974, not the polio vaccine of the 1950s and later,
MIGHT STILL BE FUELING THE AIDS PANDEMIC!
- Only a grossly-malfeasant blindly-biased sociopath would
neglect this probability.
- Perhaps it's time to appoint a new Moderator.
- Polio, Hepatitis B and AIDS:
- An Integrative Theory on a Possible Vaccine Induced Pandemic
- By Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H.
- President and Co-Founder,
- Tetrahedron, LLC Incorporated, a nonprofit educational
- Post Office Box 2033, Sandpoint, Idaho, 83864, USA.
- E-mail: <mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org>email@example.com
- The following paper was accepted for publication in the
Journal of Medical Hypotheses. The final edited manuscript was published
May 2001, Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 553-694. Slight differences exist between
this paper and the final publication. Editor-in-Chief: Dr. David F. Horrobin,
Laxdale Limited Kings Park House, Laurelhill Business Park,
- Stirling FK7 9JQ, UK
- The hypothesis that simian virus 40 (SV40) infected polio
vaccines may be linked to the evolution of acquired immunodeficiency disorder
(AIDS), and certain cancers, has been advanced. Most recently, investigators
discussed the likelihood of "gene-reshuffling" following SV40
infection as a precursor to acquired immune dysfunction. Findings of recent
SV40 infections in four children born after 1982 suggest infections were
transmitted vertically along gene lines. Earlier observations proved activation
of a retrovirus gene by a hepatitis B virus (HBV) protein. This paper proposes
a new integrative theory on the origin of AIDS. It advances the possibility
of genetic recombinations with oncogene activation by HBV involving SV40,
chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz), and other simian viruses containing
reverse transcriptase, that likely infected polio vaccinated blood donors
to the initial hepatitis B (HB) vaccine trails conducted on gay men in
New York City and other minority groups including Blacks in Uganda in the
early to mid-1970s.
- Introduction and Background
- Scientific reports have advanced a theory of a polio
vaccine linked evolution of AIDS and certain cancers.(1-4) A possible link
between SV40, that contaminated early Salk and Sabin polio vaccines, and
AIDS, was initially explored by Kyle in The Lancet in 1992.(4) Investigators
Urnovitz(1), Butel(2-3) and others(4), discussed the likelihood of "gene-reshuffling"
following SV40 infection as a precursor to acquired immune dysfunction
and the development of certain cancers. Likewise, Butel revealed evidence
of recent SV40 infections in four children born after 1982.(3) Her team
advanced the likelihood that the infections were transmitted vertically,
along gene lines, from parents who had received tainted polio vaccines.
Earlier, she observed the activation of a HTLV-1 retrovirus gene by a HB
- With an acknowledged threat of SV40 recombination in
association with immune suppression, and possible oncogene development
or activation in polio vaccine and possibly HB vaccine recipients and their
offspring, this paper advances an integrative theory on the origin of AIDS.
It asserts the possibility of genetic recombinations between SV40, chimpanzee
immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz), and/or other simian viruses containing
reverse transcriptase such as the foamy retroviruses (SFR), that likely
infected blood donors who had first received contaminated polio vaccines
in the 1950s and early 1960s, before volunteering for the HB vaccine trails
conducted on gay men in New York City (NYC), Blacks in central Africa,
and other minority groups in 1974 through 1975.
- Ten years later, in 1984, the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC) first responded to concerns that experimental HB vaccines,
administered during the 1970s to homosexual men in the United States, were
somehow linked to the AIDS epidemic.(6) Anonymous authors representing
the CDC, along with others from Merck, Sharp & Dohme (MSD), and the
State University of New York (SUNY), reported no trace of the human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV-1) in samples of vaccine supplied by MSD. Further, their epidemiologic
analyses, conducted on gay HB vaccine trial subjects in Denver and San
Francisco, showed no relationship between AIDS cases and HB vaccine exposure.
For unexplained reasons, homosexual males from New York City were not included
in their study.
- Genetic Analyses Elucidating HIV-1's Origin
- Recently, reports by a Spanish team suggested an early
genetic evolution of HIV-1.(7) Relatedly, in 1998, Zhu et al. described
an African HIV-1 sequence from 1959 and its implications regarding the
origin of the AIDS pandemic.(8) Later, Gao et al.(9) provided additional
evidence of HIV's link to African chimpanzees by "amplifying"
two DNA sequences, from two of six HIV genes, into "four overlapping
subgenomic fragments that together comprised a complete pro viral genome,"
which they termed SIVcpzUS. In an editorial accompanying this report by
Weiss and Wragham,(10) it was noted that the chimpanzee Gao et al. studied,
"Marilyn," came to the United States Air Force primate center
in New Mexico like most other African primate infants--free of sexually
transmitted viruses. They implied that Marilyn's infection could have originated
in a laboratory.
- Zhu et al. further advanced an iatrogenic theory of HIV's
origin when they confessed, "the factors that propelled the initial
spread of HIV-1 in central Africa remain unknown: the role of large-scale
vaccination campaigns . . . should be carefully examined . . ." Although
the possible role contaminated vaccines might have played was not addressed
by these authors, they provided additional insights into the inherent risk
of in vitro and in vivo viral recombination(s) when their data is compared
with earlier scientific reports concerning the HB vaccine.
- Zhu et al. advanced a curious association that "[f]or
most regions of the HIV-1 genome, subtypes B and D are more closely associated
with each other than are any other subtypes with the major group."(8)
Of the six major AIDS virus subtypes, the B subtype is most common to North
America. The D subtype is most common to Uganda, and the F subtype is most
common in Zaire.(11) These authors' analysis showed an "unusual B/D/F
clustering found in [their] phylogenetic analyses."
- In 1993, Myers and colleagues published their "big
bang" theory on the origin of AIDS and HIV-1 based on sophisticated
genetic analyses conducted at the U.S. Government's Los Alamos Laboratory.
They concluded that subtypes B, D, and F, along with close African/Indian
virus relatives A, E and C, simultaneously emerged on three distant contents,
in behaviorally divergent populations no less, during the early to mid-1970s,
despite recognizing simian virus gene sequences of earlier evolution.(11)
- Epidemiological Common Sense
- Based on the above background and genetic findings, an
iatrogenic mode of transmission, as opposed to an isolated natural cross-species
jump, appears to more likely explain how HIV-1 might have simultaneously
emerged on three far removed continents among behaviorally divergent populations
during the early to mid 1970s.
- Several non-iatrogenic origin and cross species transmission
rumors have been advanced regarding HIV-1 and its closest relative SIVcpz.
The genetically more distant relative HIV-2, and the even more divergent
African green monkey virus (SIVagm), are all believed, like HIV-1, to have
spontaneously leaped from the African jungle. Related explanations included
unprotected sex with nonhuman primates, monkey bites, dining on bloody
primate meat, needlestick injuries in primate containment facilities or
African hospitals, intercontinental infected passenger travel, and even
viral mutations associated with global warming and jungle deforestation.(12)
All these theories seem tenuous, if not ludicrous, when considered in light
of the evidence compiled herein.
- Given the above, including the findings of Urnovitz(1),
Butel(2-3) and others(4), it is most reasonable to consider the polio vaccine
as a likely factor in the origin of AIDS. As reported by Essex, African
green monkey derived oral polio vaccines (OPV) were a constant reservoir
for SIV.(13) During OPV manufacturing procedures, viral mutations and vaccine
contaminations routinely occurred without much ado. In America, for instance,
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), even to the time of this writing,
have not been able to assure the quality and safety of vaccines, including
those for polio and HB.(14) Regarding the Salk and Sabin polio vaccines,
according to Martin (a previous FDA vaccine and cancer virus official)
and Kyle's report,(4) doses of OPV routinely contained as many as 100 simian
virus particles, including SV40, SIVs, and SFRs overlooked by FDA overseers
to uphold pharmaceutical industry and regulatory standards.
- However, as per Myers's findings, HIV contaminated polio
vaccines alone would not account for the 1970s "big bang." Given
the generally recognized seven to ten year incubation period for HIV/AIDS
expression, an early polio vaccine transmitted pandemic would have likely
prompted initial indentifications of non-gay AIDS cases before 1970, and
certainly no later than 1975. Instead, the first gay-related-immunodeficiency
disease (GRID) cases were heralded in New York City in 1981.(15) Moreover,
had the Salk or early Sabin vaccines transmitted HIV between 1955 and 1965
as some have advanced,(1-4) then Myers's conclusion would have likely reflected
this, as would a North American AIDS outbreak not initially confined to
- Thus, it seems prudent to consider the findings of Butel(5)
concerning HB as a potential retrovirus (e.g. HIV or HIV progenitor) activating
agent, and cofactor, delivered with the 1970-75 HB vaccines involving New
York's gay men, Willowbrook State School (WSS) mentally retarded children,
and Ugandan Blacks who had approximately ten years earlier received monkey
virus contaminated polio vaccines.
- Integrating Polio and HB Vaccine Theories of AIDS
- Given the administration of simian virus contaminated,
monkey kidney tissue derived, polio vaccines in North America and Subsahara
Africa from the mid 1950s through at least the early 1960s; then later,
in the same or overlapping populations, the pilot testing of HB vaccines
in these same regions from 1973 to 1975, the major group subtypes, B/D/F,
as well as strains A/E, might have evolved in experimental chimpanzees,
and/or human test subjects, during the viral vaccine production and testing
processes. Subsequent HB vaccine production methods for later trials incorporated
additional contamination risks with the mixing of chimpanzee incubated
HB virus with human blood. According to a 1975 report by Robert Purcell
from the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases of the National Institute for
Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), this blood was subsequently
pooled to produce four subtypes of experimental HB vaccine (referred to
as adw, ayw, adr, and ayr).(16,17) These experimental HB vaccine subtypes
were tested primarily in NYC and portions of Africa-regions largely overlapping
the predominance of major HIV-1 strains B, D, and F. According to a 1979
NIAID task force report,(16) the four live HB viral subtypes were subsequently
transmitted to "high risk" humans.
- As explained in contemporary medical bioethics texts,
the "high risk" label, applied to groups predisposed to blood
borne pathogen infections, served to also justify gross violations of bioethics
and informed consent particularly during the HB vaccine experiments conducted
by Krugman and colleagues at the New York University Medical Center (NYUMC)
and affiliated NYC Blood Center labs.(18)
- Dr. Krugman was credited with "isolating" the
first HB (MS-2) strain of virus from a mentally retarded child. This pathogen
was originally called the "Australian antigen (AuAg)" due to
its earlier identification in Australia. Subsequently, Krugman et al.,
cultured the virus in mentally retarded children before extracting AuAg
for subsequent HB vaccine trials. In related studies, a report by Litton
Bionetics staff to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) showed that by 1968,
AuAg had been extracted from human "plasma/serum" and injected
into eleven simians. Seven were reported "dead or transferred"
- Litton Bionetics was reported to be the leading supplier
of African simians for the NCI and America's biomedical community.(19)
They were also the U.S. military's sixth leading biological weapons contractor
according to the 1969 Congressional Record.(20) The question of laboratory
contamination is raised here by NCI documents showing hepatitis, herpes,
and retrovirus recombinants (including acute lymphocytic leukemia virus
hybridized with influenza or parainfluenza viruses to propagate airborne
leukemia) were being cultured and tested before 1971 at Bionetics and collaborating
laboratories in northwest Uganda and near Bethesda.(19) Bionetics also
administered the "Special Virus Cancer Program" for the NCI and
National Institutes of Health (NIH) including HB collaborative studies
between New York investigators representing the Merck pharmaceutical company
and the International Agency for Research on Cancer operating in France
- Experimental subjects for these HB vaccine trials included
homosexual males in NYC, Willowbrook State School (WSS) mentally retarded
children on Staten Island, and African Blacks. All subjects were not informed
that the four subtype HB vaccines being tested were partially processed
in live potentially contaminated chimpanzees, shipped from Africa by Bionetics,
then housed in NYC where biohazard and containment problems, including
the horizontal transmission of infectious diseases, was routine.(17,18)
- Further scrutinizing the development and testing of these
four HB vaccine subtypes, the blood from these experimentally infected
human subjects was later pooled and used to develop "perhaps 200,000
human doses" according to Merck's vaccine chief, Maurice Hilleman.(18)
Again, these doses containing HB viruses serially passed from Australian
humans, to WSS children, into African chimpanzees before being reinoculated
into New Yorkers and central Africans by way of vaccines by 1975.(21) This
was perfect timing for the initial outbreak of GRID/AIDS cases in these
regions by the late 1970s.
- Relatedly, in a recovered interview, Dr. Hilleman reported
unwittingly importing AIDS virus into North America in contaminated monkeys
destined for vaccine research and development at Merck.(22) Likewise, Dr.
Hilleman's coauthor and senior Merck vaccine developer, Benjamin Sweet,
expressed regret that their early SV40 contaminated polio vaccines may
have contributed to contemporary cancer epidemics. "[N]ow, with the
theoretical links to HIV and cancer," he reported in 1998 on the internet,
"it just blows my mind."(23)
- HIV-2 and the Possible Iatrogenic Origin of HIV-1
- Ample scientific evidence exists to advance the generic
thesis of vaccine laboratory contamination associated with retroviral transmissions
risking epidemic outcomes. A classic example intimately related to this
polio/HB vaccine/AIDS hypothesis is the identification of HIV-2 by Max
Essex and colleagues at the Harvard AIDS Institute. These investigators
published discovering HIV-2 among healthy Senegalese female prostitutes.(24)
In Senegal, prostitution is legal and the sex workers are required to report
for clinical examinations and HB vaccinations periodically for relicensure.
Eventually investigators determined that the simian immunodeficiency virus
from the macaque monkey (SIVmac) and Essex's HIV-2 were genetically identical.(25,26)
Moreover, wild macaques were found not to harbor this virus whatsoever.
SIVmac was only found in laboratory contaminated primates.(27) Thus, Shultz
concluded that culturing monkey viruses in human tissues, as is often done
in viral vaccine production labs, risks activating previously benign "retroviral
genomes carried in the germline for millions of years" into pathogens
capable of inducing immune dysfunction. He, therefore, advised reexamining
"any remaining [polio] vaccine lots by the polymerase chain reaction"
so as to identify HIV or related lentiviruses.(27) Given the above evidence,
the same should be urged for the earliest HB vaccine lots.
- Following Dr. Essex's 1996 presentation at the National
AIDS Update Conference in San Francisco, I had the opportunity to question
him as to, "How, other than through contaminated vaccines, could a
monkey virus that doesn't exist in the wild, end up infecting Senegalese
female prostitutes?" Evading the question he replied, "I can
tell you how my monkeys got infected. . . . Researchers had inoculated
the monkeys with human tissues during experiments [unrelated to HIV] prior
to them coming to my lab."(21)
- Though his comment failed to explain how HIV-1 and HIV-2
got into Black Africans in the first place, it did provide a unique admission
of human error commonly associated with laboratory contaminations, including
the threat of viral particles crossing species barriers. In this case,
once again, the HB vaccine is logically implicated.
- More Support For A HB Vaccine AIDS Link
- During the early 1970s, researchers at the NYUMC led
the world in determining blood group compatibility between humans and simians.
Investigators here set the stage for the use of monkey blood in human vaccine
trials.(21) NYUMC dermatologists and hematologists were credited with the
discovery and analysis of the first gay Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesion.(28)
Across town, at the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, Dermatology
Department, Dr. Eleanor R. Lappano-Colletta was busy studying viral infected
tissue taken from young gay men with KS. Between 1973 and 1974 she revealed,
her dermatology department directors were routinely communicating with
NCI chiefs and Litton affiliates including their 1971 retrovirus "project
officer," Dr. Robert Gallo, regarding the subject of her investigation-the
unique retroviral particles she was studying in the tissue samples taken
from gay KS victims.(29)
- Dr. Lappano-Colletta's testimony raises the spectre that
the 1984 contested discovery of HTLV-III (i.e., HIV-1) by Dr. Gallo, actually
followed his learning about the teratogenic effects of a pathogenically
related virus in gay men ten years previously, and just prior to the administration
of the suspected HB vaccines in the same city and same unique population.
- Besides Litton Bionetics, the NYUMC was also listed among
the Army's top biological weapons contracting labs by 1969.(20) Under Army
contract Dr. Krugman routinely used mentally retarded children and gay
men to grow/culture and/or test HB viral strains and vaccines following
his MS-2 studies.(30) The pilot HB vaccines theoretically linked here to
the earliest GRID cases in NYC was overseen as well by an advisory committee
chaired by Dr. Krugman,(31) and researched by intimate Krugman collaborator,
Abbott Laboratory's L. R. Overby. Together, Krugman and Overby evaluated
HB susceptibility and vaccination methods on NYC subjects between 1965
and the mid-1970s.(18,30,32) Subsequently, Abbott Labs began commercially
marketing MSD's HB vaccine.(28,32,33) Later, large scale HB vaccine trial
marshal Wolf Szmuness, also affiliated with the NYC Blood Center explained
the selection criteria for Dr. Krugman's early, and his later, HB vaccine
experiments. He wrote:
- Several populations in the United States with a high
risk of HBV infection were considered for such a trial: patients institutionalized
for mental retardation, patients undergoing hemodialysis, members of the
medical staff of dialysis centers, American Indians, and homosexual men.
Of these groups, a population of HBV-susceptible homosexual healthy young
men appeared to be the most suitable. Their risk of HBV infection is unusually
high, they are readily accessible through numerous gay organizations, and
their cooperation in previous studies has been excellent.(31)
- It is well known that HIV/AIDS rates among native Americans,
people of color, blood product recipients, and homosexual males, have far
exceeded those of the general population. It might be this overlap between
populations most affected by HIV/AIDS and those selected for early and
later HB vaccine experiments, more than lifestyle risks, provides as a
common denominator for the AIDS pandemic. Given this fact alone, the report
by Poiesz et al., including anonymous CDC authors, excluding gay NYC HB
vaccine study participants, is highly irregular at best.(21)
- Considering the epidemiology suggestive of a HB vaccine
triggered outbreak of GRID in America, the data below is noteworthy: Following
HB vaccine pilot studies as discussed above, additional trials were conducted
during the mid-1970s in NYC.
- In 1976, the WSS was forced to close allegedly due to
abuses sustained by the children at the hands of school administrators.
Based on the information documented above, it is likely that many of the
approximately 5,000 children sent back to their communities in 1976 were
among the world's first AIDS victims.(21)
- Larger scale HB vaccine trials in NYC began after the
closing of WSS. In 1978, 1,083 gay men were inoculated with the Merck developed
and Abbott marketed vaccine. In March, 1980, approximately eighteen months
after the NYC inoculations ended, gay men in five other American cities
began to receive the vaccine. These cities included Los Angeles, San Francisco,
Denver, St. Louis, and Chicago from where 1,402 homosexuals were initially
recruited from VD clinics. Later, thousands more joined additional HB vaccine
- Between 1978 and 1984 the percentage of HIV-positive
gay men in NYC rose dramatically. In other HB vaccine study populations
the rise in HIV-1 sero-prevalence and AIDS was also disconcerting. In San
Francisco, for instance, among those who had been subjects in the trials
(n=6,875) the HIV/AIDS rate rose from 4 to 68 percent between 1978 and
1984.(18) This increase was precipitous contrasting the rate of HIV infection
among homosexual men reported elsewhere in 1989. Across the U.S. HIV/AIDS
rates varied from 0 percent in many communities to 70 percent in NYC, with
significantly less in San Francisco.
- In 1982, concerns were expressed at the Pasteur Institute
regarding the possible link between AIDS and the Merck-manufactured HB
vaccine. Luc Montagnier was then assured by CDC HB chief Don Francis, Max
Essex's protege, that "no link between AIDS and the [HB] vaccine inoculations"
had been found. Yet, a year later, Dr. Francis sent Dr. Montagnier thirteen
blood samples from GRID patients all of whom received experimental HB vaccines.(21,
- Dr. Francis had expressed concern regarding the apparent
association between feline leukemia virus like illness striking gay men
in NYC, Los Angeles, and San Francisco and the distribution of HB cases.
"Combine these two diseases-feline leukemia and hepatitis-and you
have the immune deficiency," he surmised.(34) This was much like what
a NATO scientific audience discussed in 1971 when Gallo et al., explained
combining synthetic RNA and feline leukaemia virus (FELV) "template"
with "human type C" viruses-those associated with cancers of
the lymph nodes-to increase the rate of DNA production (and subsequent
provirus and virus reproduction) "as much as thirty times."(35)
Such hybrid viruses, these researchers reported, caused many cancers besides
leukemias and lymphomas, including sarcomas. Other Gallo, NCI, and Litton
Bionetics teams reported modifying, at that time, SV40 by infusing it with
nucleic acids from other species including FELV, avian myeloblastosis virus
(AMV), both associated with leukemia and sarcoma development, and mouse
sarcoma RNA to make them severely immunosuppression for primates(36)
- Additionally, in 1985, Harold Jaffe, deputy director
for AIDS science at the CDC, with co-worker Andrew Moss, "presented
data from the San Francisco HB study that found the virus was present in
blood of 4.5 percent of the study's subjects in 1978, 20 percent in 1980,
and 67 percent by late 1984."(37) In contrast, "only about 40
percent of a randomly selected sample of gay men [also in San Francisco
at that time] were infected. Based on this evidence, again considering
the 7-10 year incubation period for HIV/AIDS, the "big bang"
most likely occurred as Myers proposed during the early to mid-1970s with
the HB vaccine cohort preceding the general gay, and later heterosexual,
populations for epidemic onset.(11)
- To further examine this predominance of HIV/AIDS cases
among NYC and San Francisco HB vaccine recipients, Francis examined the
blood collected from 6,800 gay men enrolled in the larger (post-pilot)
HB vaccine trials. From samples drawn between 1978 and 1980, he recorded
a 25 percent rise in HIV positivity. He too concluded that the new pathogen
had appeared among gay men by 1976 or 1977 and spread quickly from there.(38)
- Corroborating data is cited by CDC official Paul O' Malley
who concluded his investigation into a suspected GRID/HB vaccine link as
follows: "[A]n inordinate number of GRID victims," he stated
were in the HB vaccine trial. "Of the first twenty-four GRID cases
in San Francisco, in fact, eleven were in the hepatitis B cohort."(34)
- Based on CDC reports, as scrutinized by investigative
journalist and gay physician Alan Cantwell, the first 26 AIDS cases were
all homosexual men-20 were from NYC, and 6 were from Los Angeles.(17, 39)
Conducting an independent study paralleling this author's,(21) and drawing
similar conclusions, Dr. Cantwell reported a gross absence of scientific
prowess on the part of CDC officials investigating an apparent HB vaccine
AIDS link.(39) Conflicting interests, he concluded, best explained the
blatant biases and flawed methods used by official investigators during
studies used to reassure the scientific/medical communities, and the general
public, regarding the safety of HB vaccines.(21,28, 39-41)
- A possible route of HIV evolution, and/or transmission,
is this: 1) From the mid-1950s through at least the 1960s, simian virus
infected polio vaccine recipients were exposed to SV40, SFR, and SIVagm,(1-5)
including gay men and mentally retarded children in New York, along with
Blacks in central Africa;(17) 2) Researchers in NYC "isolated,"
and then inoculated into human vaccine study "volunteers" the
MS-2 strain of HB virus. Between 1965 and 1970, these injections and pilot
HB vaccine studies may have activated an endogenous or exogenous HIV-related
retroviral gene in one or more WSS children and/or gay males;(1,2,5,18)
3) These human derived HB viruses, and potentially activated retroviral
sequences, were then transferred to chimpanzees, then back again to humans
in NYC and central Africa during the development and testing of four genetically
altered subtypes of the 1974-1975 experimental HB vaccine; 4) Contamination
risks were increased by the subsequent pooling of blood donated by the
test subjects who had been injected with the chimpanzee cultured HB strains,
along with biohazard and containment problems reported by principle investigators;
and finally, 5) The four pooled blood derived HB vaccines were then administered
to thousands of test subjects including gay males in NYC, WSS children
once again, and central African Blacks.(15)
- This hypothesis might best explain the conclusion reached
by Gerald Myers, chief of the special HIV Sequence Database AIDS Project
at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, that "the preponderance of
evidence still argues for an explosive event in the mid-1970s."(11)
With the sudden, virtually simultaneous, appearance of several HIV major
group subtypes primarily striking Africa and NYC by 1978, given the seven
to ten year incubation period of HIV/AIDS, the HB vaccine trials, begun
as early as 1965 in New York and Uganda, and in NYC gay populations soon
after, likely played a catalytic role in the origin of the AIDS pandemic.
- Additional research using PCR analysis of suspected polio
and HB vaccine lots, particularly those given to gay men and WSS children
in New York before 1976, is urgently indicated to identify possible retroviral
contaminants related to HIV/AIDS. Epidemiological efforts should also be
made to contact the families of the WSS children, as well as the gay men
in NYC who participated in the pre 1976 HB vaccine pilot studies, to document
histories relevant to further considering this hypothesis.
- Obviously, due to the lethal nature and severe cost of
the AIDS pandemic, should this premise be firmly established, it would
beg a global reevaluation of vaccination science, politics, and policies.
Based on the preliminary findings reported here, and in the author's earlier
investigative report,(14) at least two Third World nations have already
moved in this direction.(42)
- Not readily embraced by individuals, organizations, institutions,
and/or government agencies biased by special interests, the dire implications
of neglecting this hypothesis, and its further investigation, are unfathomable.
It may be that the health and welfare of civilization, as we know it, depends
on silencing the arrogant voices that have directed disinterest, and even
antagonism, towards the study of AIDS's origin. Reflecting on the publication
of this material, their actions strain the ethical fabric of science, our
moral obligations as global citizens, and as a result, may be contributing
to a worsening, irreversible, and unprecedented attack against humanity.
- Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H. is a Harvard
School of Public Health graduate, independent investigator, and the president
and cofounder of Tetrahedron, LLC Incorporated. Please address correspondence
to: Post Office Box 2033,
- Sandpoint, Idaho 83864; E-mail: <mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org>email@example.com;
internet address: <http://www.tetrahedron.org>http://www.tetrahedron.org/
- The author gratefully acknowledges the contributions
in this field, and/or personal advice provided, by Alan Cantwell, Jr.,
M.D., Robert Strecker, M.D., John Seale, M.D., Walter Kyle, J.D., and John
Martin, M.D., Ph.D, and the support, financial and otherwise, of thousands
of well-wishers since this investigation began in 1993. Special thanks
go to Dr. David Horrobin and the peer review committee of Medical Hypothesis
for objectively evaluating this thesis, and having the heroic fortitude
and scientific integrity to commit it to print.
- This paper is dedicated to the fine efforts and genuine
honesty of the late Jonathan Mann who, with his wife, a HB vaccine investigator,
met an untimely fate on Flight 111. Far more than a medical problem, Dr.
Mann believed, AIDS is a socio-political imposition.
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