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Who Or What Made Polygon
Features On Moons?

By Ted Twietmeyer
Logically one would think that craters on celestial bodies in our Solar System are usually round. Our moon has shown this to be true with hundreds of round craters, and laboratory experiments using miniature meteors blasted into dry sand also produce round craters. This would make sense, since the shock wave from an impact perpendicular to a celestial body's surface by a meteor or asteroid would radiate outward in a 360 degree pattern. Even if the impact isn't perfectly straight down, material will still be displaced in all directions to some degree, even creating a tear- drop shaped craters.
Today we know that out there in our Solar System on some of our moons, craters and other features are not round but polygon-shaped, usually with six sides. At first glance this may seem insignificant, but it is not. Iapetus is another moon has numerous craters which clearly appear to have polygon shapes:
Fig. 1 - Here we clearly see numerous polygon shapes on Iapetus, which NASA says little about.
Fig. 2 - Iapetus, third largest moon of Saturn, It has a massive hexagon shape, and the infamous ridge (black arrow) which is approximately 20 km wide x 13 km high, and almost 1300 km long (JPL)
Many researchers have written about the high strangeness of Phobos, a very small moon orbiting Mars. (Some have also observed what appears to be a monolith standing on the surface, but no close-up images of the column appear to be available. We will not cover that in this essay.) In my research with Mars' surface objects in raw images from the Rovers, artificial objects were discovered on the not-so-red planet.[2] It makes one ponder that perhaps some of this high strangeness with Mars may also be present on Mars' moons. We shall look at one of these moons named Phobos.
Fig. 3 - Here is one of several NASA images of Phobos enlarged 150% to bring out details of polygon shapes. No other image enhancement was performed which can create unwanted artifacts. Note the polygon shapes. Phobos is 27km in length. [1]
Fig. 4 - In this notated image of Phobos, we can see some of the hexagonal shapes on the moon's surface. (Not all shapes are notated here for clarity.) At the bottom of the image (red circle) we can see three crater-like indentations in the surface, equidistant from the larger hexagonal shaped crater in the center. These craters appear to be on a square, slightly raised plateau which is barely visible in the image. (Compare this image to Fig. 3.)
At the top of this image are four craters (yellow circle.) Each one is about the same size and all are almost perfectly spaced apart. This could fit the physical effects of the electrical discharge model by Michael Goodspeed of thunderbolts.info. I would like to add some supporting thoughts here for Michael's model. The following comments are referencing evenly spaced craters such as those inside the yellow circle and others on these moons.
Electrical discharges (or arcing) are known to have fixed repetition rates. Repetition rates are determined by something called a "time constant" in electrical engineering. Without delving into the full theory of that here, it is sufficient to say that time constants can be either simple or complex in nature, and can apply to AC, DC or static electricity. In the case of an electrical arc between Phobos and another celestial body, the very high voltage would be similar to static electricity. The time constant (or arcing repetition rate) between Phobos and another celestial body will be a function of surface conductivity, dielectric constant, surface area of the planet or moon, any gas or atmosphere between the two celestial bodies and the magnitude of the electrical charge difference between the two celestial bodies, known as voltage.
As the two bodies draw close to one another, an initial arc between the two charged celestial bodies takes place and the electrical charge in the region of the arc is dissipated as the voltage drops below a certain point. This causes the arc to quench. In the case of planets and moons, this will most likely consist of a huge electrical potential which would be billions of volts or perhaps even more. An example in microcosm on Earth would be walking across a carpet and getting a single shock from a doorknob of a few thousand volts.
This is what could happen between two celestial bodies in space, but on an unimaginably larger scale. You place your finger near the doorknob and quickly withdraw it after feeling the shock. It's possible to get shocked again as the charge on your body re- distributes if you placed your finger near the doorknob again. However, the each successive time you will need to place your finger closer. The same would hold true between two celestial bodies.
At the moment the arc between the two celestial bodies quenches, the electrical charges on each body will immediately begin charge re-distribution. Electrical charges will seek to re-distribute themselves over the entire surface of the moon or planet when no other electrical discharge path is present.
Here's another example of how this works: Think about a large picture tube television. If you place your finger near the screen, high voltage static will arc to your finger once and stop. If you place your finger near the same place on the screen again later on, it will arc to your finger again. This will happen on a massive scale with celestial bodies, as the electrical charge builds up again in the region of the original discharge, which initiates a second arc, a third arc, etc
If the two charged bodies are in motion while the arcing is repeating, it's quite likely that the arc will strike a different place on each celestial body, each time. It may have been this process that formed the small series of craters in the yellow circled area of Fig. 4. The arcing process repeats itself until one or more of the following takes place:
Electrical charge on each celestial body no longer has a sufficient high potential difference (voltage) to generate further discharges. Plus or minus polarities are not important here, only the voltage differences between the two celestial bodies.
Electrical charge of the two celestial bodies has finally equalized which stops the process.
The two celestial bodies move away from each other far enough to prevent further arcing.
The distance between the first arc site on the moon or planet and succeeding arc sites is a direct function of the velocity between the two celestial bodies. If there was actual physical contact between two celestial bodies, then only one arc may take place.
Like Iapetus, Phobos does not appear to have large round craters. Instead, almost all the large craters and features we see on Phobos have a polygon shape, usually in the form of a hexagon.
Considering how many polygons appear to be just under the surface of both moons, could these polygonal structures be similar to seams in a baseball- showing us where these moons were assembled by an unknown race?
Are the polygon shapes the result of an energy weapon used against these moons?
Why would polygons be present in such large quantities?
Why are octagons or other polygon shapes with more sides found on Phobos?
Why are there so many similar hexagon shapes on both Iapetus and Phobos?
Did an unknown race engineer and construct our Solar System eons ago?
There are many theories that suggest Phobos, like Iapetus and possibly other moons in our Solar System are of artificial origin. Until somehow proven otherwise by soil samples, artifacts or radar, any theory will remain viable to explain the origins of these moons. It would not be surprising if Iapetus was later found to be hollow by radar.
And finally one of the most important questions of all: If any of the moons are found to be of artificial origin or have artificial structures on or under the surface - will the world be told by either NASA or the European Space Agency?
Ted Twietmeyer
[1] http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/target/Phobos?start=20
[2] http://www.bookonmars.info
Michael Goodspeed
I'd appreciate if I could add a brief note offering some clarity on a comment in Ted Twietmeyer's essay, "Who or What Made Polygonal Features on the Moon?" Ted refers to a "Goodspeed Electrical Discharge Model." I surely appreciate the reference, but I cannot lay claim to having originated the theory of electrical cratering on celestial bodies. Nor can I claim authorship of a "model" of any sort. As I outline in my essay "The Craters are Electric," as early as the mid 1960's, an amateur astronomer named Brian Ford raised the possibility that most of the craters on our moon were carved by cosmic electrical discharge. (Spaceflight 7, January, 1965). More recently, a number of independent researchers have continued the investigation, replicating prominent crater features and patterns through simple experiments, in the lab or even at home. (Electric craters in the lab are discussed in detail in the aforementioned piece here:
As for me, I'm not a scientist nor really a hands-on investigator, but rather an (admittedly biased) reporter observing and framing the issues for the general public.
I do agree with Ted that polygonal features -- which have been seen on many planets and moons -- are a permanent Achilles heel for conventional geologists and planetary scientists, and (from the Electric Universe perspective) are best explained by the well-documented principles of electrical engineering and plasma science.
The Electric Universe theory and its many corollary issues represents collaboration by many researchers, plasma cosmologists and electrical engineering experts, not of any one individual. And all owe a great debt to (still largely unsung) scientific pioneers of the last century, including Kristian Birkeland, Irving Langmuir, Winston H. Bostwick, Hannes Alfven, Ralph Juergens, and many others too numerous to list here. For a comprehensive historical perspective on the Electric Universe and Plasma Universe, replete with references to many published scientific materials, I suggest readers visit Ian Tresman's Wikipedia-style http://plasma-universe.com , and/or Australian researcher Dave Smith's http://plasmaresources.com.
--Michael Goodspeed
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