- Here is the reason why Thomas Bearden has written the
following paper; It's because I helped a little 10 year old girl to win
every science award in Coeur d' Alene...all First Places plus a Special
Award in science with one of my motors.
- The motor ran for 4 days...without stopping at 4000RPM.
It also ran a generator producing power the entire time.
- The science teachers went NUTS over this demonstration
and wanted to know how it worked. I then put the plans for it out on
Keelynet and gave the thing away freely. So far, the comments are good;
some have already produced the free energy and have the Motor running...but
then there are always the others who say it can't work. (You can't win
- Here is the little movie I sent to Keelynet. It's great
to see we may get free energy yet.
- Download MPEG movie here
- (Note - Tom Bearden's letter explaining John's brilliant
creation follows. John's fairly recent interview with Jeff can be heard
via our Program Archives -ed)
- John _____
- Explanation of John Bedini's Formation of
Negative Resistors in Batteries
- By Tom Bearden 4-26-00
- First we must include the usual warning that the experimenter
assumes all legal responsibilities for his experiments, at his own volition.
This author assumes no responsibilities or liabilities for such actions.
- John has kindly given his permission for me to explain
his use of the lead acid battery and how he gets the vacuum to contribute
excess energy to the battery and to the circuit. I'll discuss the battery
a bit, very informally because I don't have a lot of time to go back and
look up all the references, etc. and prepare a formal paper. But we'll
cover the gist of it so you can understand how John uses batteries and
switches them in his units, and why he does it the way he does. We'll
point out the processes that are involved in his methodology, and why he
can use a lead acid battery to produce COP1.0 in perfect compliance with
the laws of physics, thermodynamics, and the conservation of energy law.
One must use a combination of electrodynamics and particle physics to
grasp these processes and mechanisms, because classical EM theory does
not include the active vacuum interaction, even though it's been clearly
proven (theoretically and experimentally) in particle physics for decades.
- Vacuum energy already powers every electrical circuit
and every electrical load today, and always has done so from the beginning.
Contrary to the received view, extraction of usable EM energy from the
vacuum is the easiest thing in all the world to do, and it is ubiquitous
to all our circuits and power systems. All the coal, oil, and natural
gas ever burned in powerplants added not a single watt to the powerline.
All that energy input from the fuel combustion was used only to continuously
restore the source dipoles in the generators, dipoles that our scientists
and engineers unwittingly design the external circuits to keep destroying.
The source dipole, once established, was and is a "negative resistor"
of enormous power that has powered every electrical circuit and load from
the beginning. As we shall see, Bedini discovered how to make a negative
resistor right inside the battery itself.
- Every electrodynamicist already assumes (and utilizes)
the fact that you can freely change the potential energy of any EM system,
at will. It's called "regauging". E.g., Jackson's Classical
Electrodynamics, second edition (and any other important EM book one chooses),
applies arbitrary Lorentz "regauging" to the Maxwell-Heaviside
equations, changing them to a new set erroneously said to be identical
to the others in every way. They are not. Specifically, that little change
(symmetrical regauging after first Lorenz in 1867 and later H.A. Lorentz),
simply discards all open Maxwellian systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium
with the active vacuum. In short, it arbitrarily discards all overunity
EM systems, including those that could permissibly capture and use energy
from the active vacuum to power themselves and their loads simultaneously.
A priori, such Maxwellian systems are far from thermodynamic equilibrium
in the vacuum flux -- much as a windmill is out of equilibrium with the
wind's energy exchange with it.
- First, to understand John's work one must be aware that
there are several currents in a lead acid battery, not just one. For our
purposes we will need just two: the heavy lead-type ion current in the
battery, and the electron current in the battery but also commuting into
the external circuit.
- Note particularly that the electrons communicate between
the inside of the battery (e.g., the plates) and the external circuit,
but the lead ions do not. There is thus an interface and a sharp separation
between the electron current and the ion current.
- Here's the point everyone is missing. Check the mass-to-charge
ratio of each of the two currents. (I have it somewhere, from calculating
it years ago, but have no time to search for it again. So someone should
look up the numbers again and add them up; it's straightforward.). As
I recall, the lead ions' m/q ratio is several hundred thousand times the
m/q ratio of the electrons. For our purposes here, all we need to know
is that the m/q ratio for the lead ions is very much bigger than the m/q
ratio for the electrons.
- So there is obviously a hysteresis (time delay) in the
response of the massive ion current to far less massive electron currents
that interact and try to change the ion current and its momentum. This
time-delay in ion response to electron urging can be adroitly manipulated
and used to cause the vacuum to add energy to the ions and also to the
electrons. In short, the delay can be manipulated to freely "regauge"
the system, freely changing its potential energy, and dramatically increasing
how much potential energy is available for battery recharging and how much
is available for powering the external circuit (loads and losses).
- Instead of thinking of the energy John inputs to the
battery as the "powering" energy, one must think of it as "triggering"
and "timing" energy which initiates certain other key interactions
to occur. These additional interactions then add lots of additional energy
to the ions and the electrons, all for free or nearly so. In short, John
"switches'" and "triggers" certain kinds of vacuum
interactions, including the highly specialized formation of a negative
resistor in the battery itself. He then "triggers" that negative
resistor in certain ways to increase its functioning even further.
- John's method does the following: (1) It forms a true
negative resistor in a most unexpected way, inside a common lead acid battery,
(2) it uses that negative resistor to extract excess energy from the vacuum
and furnish it both to the ions in charging mode and to the electrons in
load powering mode, and (3) it adds several other stimuli which increase
the amplification of the negative resistor and further enhance the effect,
increasing the excess energy extracted from the vacuum and collected in
the charging process and also in the powering process.
- Specifically, the delay in ion response can be manipulated
to place the battery in ion recharging mode while the signal pulse electrons
are simultaneously placed in external circuit powering mode. By manipulating
the hysteresis and adroitly timing the electron pulses and pulse widths,
one can break the forced Lorentz symmetry of the excitation discharge in
a usually closed current loop containing both the battery's source dipole
and the external load. This is possible since John's method deliberately
opens the loop so that the vacuum energy enters freely, increasing the
potentialization (energy collection) upon the ions and the electrons as
- Suppose we "hit" a battery's terminals with
an instantaneous leading edge rise of a pulse of electrons and potential.
Let us assume the "hit" is in the "battery-charging"
mode. The electrons drive in instantly, trying to force the heavy ions
to start moving in the charging direction. For a moment the lead ions
just sit there, and then very slowly (compared to the electrons!) start
to reluctantly move in the recharging mode. During that "ion response
lag" time, the electrons continue to furiously rush in and pile-up
on the plates. The charge density sharply increases on the plates in that
pile-up where the charges are "squeezing" together (clustering).
So now we have a much higher potential suddenly rising in the squeezed
charge cluster, because of the increased charge density arising there.
- Refer to E.T. Whittaker, "On the Partial Differential
Equations of Mathematical Physics, Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 57, 1903,
p. 333-355. Whittaker shows us that a "scalar" potential is
not at all what they taught us in EM theory 101. If one hasn't read Whittaker
1903, one will need to do so.
- As Whittaker shows, the scalar potential (actually its
reaction cross section is what even Whittaker is decomposing) identically
is a harmonic set of bidirectional longitudinal EM wavepairs, where each
pair is a phase conjugate pair. In short, a "scalar" potential
identically is a multivectorial, multiwave entity (but comprised of longitudinally
polarized EM waves, and those waves come in bidirectional pairs!). In
fact, because in the phase conjugate pair one wave is "time-forward"
and the other is "time-reversed", time-reversal and time-forward
perturbations occur paired and simultaneously in nature's electrodynamics.
This is erroneously omitted, however, in Maxwellian electrodynamics theory.
- Anyway, the "scalar" potential isn't even a
scalar entity. Since Whittaker 1903, the proof has been in the literature
nearly a century and it has just been ignored!
- Since the QM vacuum contains and is a virtual particle
flux (that's one way to model it) and thus contains energy, it is (or can
be modeled as) a special kind of "scalar" potential. Every EM
potential is in fact a change to the vacuum energy density. Any EM potential
in a circuit is a change to the ambient vacuum potential or to some intermediate
potential that is. Rigorously, any increased EM potential in a circuit
is a special kind of negative resistor, since extra bidirectional, flowing
EM energy from the vacuum has been added to the circuit. However, electrodynamicists
have not recognized that regauging produces a true negative resistor.
Very large bidirectional energy flows (very large potentials) can be freely
added to the circuit at any time. However, to use these negative resistors
so that we extract usable energy from them, we have to learn how to more
carefully use bidirectional potentials so that we apply them adroitly in
two opposing directions simultaneously.
- No textbook or professor ever calculates the potential
itself, but only its reaction cross section. Consider that for awhile;
it's quite rigorous. We have been and are taught to calculate only how
much energy is diverged from the potential, around a little unit point
static charge (assumed), and that little "swirl-around" energy
is then supposed to be "the potential". It isn't. The little
swirl-around is the energy diverged from the potential. Calling that "the
potential" is analogous to mistaking a tiny little whirlpool in a
river as the entire river. Same error.
- For more than a century the electricians have erroneously
"defined" the scalar potential "at a point" as the
amount of energy diverged from it around a little fixed unit point static
charge at that point The amount of energy "swirled or diverted from
all those bidirectional LWs around a little unit point static charge"
fixed at a point, does indeed have a scalar magnitude. For fixed conditions,
there's a fixed amount of energy in the "swirl-around" at any
moment. But that "magnitude of the energy in the swirl" isn't
the potential; it's what's diverted from the potential.
- Obviously it's a major non sequitur to mistake "the"
potential for a tiny fraction of itself.
- As a set of bidirectional LWs, the potential is an ensemble
of mighty, rushing rivers of EM energy, with paired rivers flowing in opposite
directions. From those rushing rivers of energy comprising any nonzero
"static" potential, you can collect as much energy as you wish,
just by adding more intercepting/collecting charges. The equation is already
known and very simple: W = (phi)q, where W is the total energy collected
(diverged) from a potential of reaction cross section phi, upon intercepting
charges q. Fix the phi to a constant value, then add as much q as is needed
to have W reach any value you wish. One can collect a billion watts of
power from a millivolt, e.g., given enough intercepting charges q. The
"magnitude" of the potential isn't fixed at any point, because
the potential is a set of flows involving the entire vacuum of the universe.
- Anyway, back to our battery that we just "popped"
with an electron pulse. Now we have a higher potential in that pileup
of electrons onto the interface with the ions, urging the ions forward.
Well, the potential energy being collected on those ions (i.e., diverged
around them from the potential's multiwaves) is given by W = (phi) q, where
W is the energy collected from the new and dramatically increased potential
with reaction cross section (phi), upon charges q -- in this case, upon
the ions. And also upon the piled up electrons on the circuit side of
the battery plate, because the waves comprising the potential run in both
- Set a potential in the middle of a transmission line,
and it takes off like two scalded hogs in both directions simultaneously,
thereby revealing its bidirectional vectorial nature. The new, increased
potential from the pile-up at the interface between electrons and ions
in the battery takes off like two scalded hogs in both directions -- into
the battery onto the ions and out into the external circuit onto the electrons.
- But that increased potential at the pileup is actually
a change to the ambient potential of the vacuum. It is part of the vacuum
and a reorganization of it, reaching across the universe in all directions
(or speeding out there in all directions at light speed).
- Since the internal LW waves comprising the increased
potential at the pile-up are bidirectional, we have added energy to both
the electrons out there in the circuit and to the ions in there in the
battery. Since the electrons react (relax and move) so much faster than
the ions, we can now be drawing power in the external circuit and its load,
due to the instant response of the overpotentialized electrons, while we
are still urging those overpotentialized ions into motion in a recharging
- For the purist, electrons really move on the average
with only a very small drift velocity in the circuit, often on the order
of a few inches per hour. However, that average "drift" is comprised
of an enormous distribution of electron velocities, collisions, etc. So
what we have actually done is dramatically change that distribution underlying
the drift velocity. The "current" in a circuit is not as simple
as the physical movement of electrons like marbles through a hollow pipe,
even though loosely one usually uses that kind of language.
- I sent you the IC-2000 paper, in which we pointed out
that there is no such thing as an isolated charge anyway, when you consider
the shadowing virtual charges of opposite sign in the vacuum that cluster
around it. That is already well-established in QM theory. So an "isolated
charge" really is a set of dipoles, where each dipole is comprised
of a piece of the observed charge and one of the clustering virtual charges.
Each of those dipoles contains a potential between its ends, and thus
identically generates a bidirectional LW flow across the universe, altering
(and structuring and organizing) the entire vacuum.
- In particle physics, it has been known for more than
40 years (couple of Nobel Prizes awarded and all that) that any dipole
is a broken symmetry in the fierce virtual energy exchange between the
active vacuum and the dipole charges. By definition of broken symmetry,
this means that some of that virtual disordered energy continuously absorbed
from the vacuum by the dipole's charges, is NOT radiated back as disordered
virtual photons. Instead, it is self-ordered by the charges. Open systems
not in equilibrium with their active environment -- in this case the active
vacuum -- are permitted to do that, and a dipole is such an open system
in disequilibrium with the active vacuum. So the re-ordered component
of the energy emitted from the charges is radiated back as observable EM
field energy flow, which does interact macroscopically and observably with
- Rigorously, this "charges pile-up" at the plate
interface between electrons and ions has asymmetrically self-regauged the
system including both the recharging ions inside the battery and the electron
current out in the external circuit now forced into powering mode. The
reorganized vacuum has added excess energy to the entire system, the excess
being energy which was extracted from the vacuum by that pile-up of charges,
each with its associated clustered virtual charges, so that the charge
pile-up acts as a cluster of dipoles.
- We have specified a situation and process which asymmetrically
self-regauges the system, using excess energy from the vacuum. The increased
potential at the pile-up is in fact a direct change to the entire vacuum.
It is an organization of the entire vacuum. To the system the change
in the vacuum is negentropic because the vacuum energy has been organized
into a bidirectional set of flows. Such self-organization is permissible
in an open system not in equilibrium with its external active environment.
All this is based on rigorous, proven physics, but it is not in the hoary
old classical electrodynamics, which contains a great many foundations
errors and omissions.
- The set of bidirectional energy flows involving the entire
vacuum and comprising that increased potential at the pile-up, represents
a re-organization of the local vacuum to a more ordered state. In short,
negentropy. The pile-up of charges and its associated potential (negentropic
reorganization of the vacuum) constitute an active negative resistor.
- This is the way that John creates a negative resistor
directly inside a lead acid storage battery (and in several other kinds
of batteries also). The pile-up becomes a true negative resistor, extracting
additional biwave flowing energy from the external vacuum. The negative
resistor receives energy from the vacuum in that half of the unobserved
internal LWs that flow from every point in external space to the pile-up.
The negative resistor then sends that organized energy out into the "circuit"
in that half of the potential's internal LWs that flow out into the battery
and in the opposite direction into the external circuit and on out to
every other point in the universe.
- One should again check Whittaker 1903 and think about
that extra "pile-up" potential as a harmonic set of bidirectional
EM longitudinal wavepairs, until one understands this active negative resistance
- The absolutely permissible, justified, scientific result
is that the energy of the system is freely and dramatically increased (the
system is regauged) from the negentropic vacuum. The ions in that increased
energy flow into the battery take on more energy than we ourselves "input",
with the excess being taken from the reorganized vacuum by the action of
the negative resistor formed at the pile-up. The charges in the pile-up
took on more energy, taken from the vacuum, and the higher potential also
flows at the speed of light back out the terminals along the conductors,
potentializing the surface charges and increasing the intercepted energy
diverged into the conductors by the surface charges. Since a back-lash
emf exists from the higher potential at the back-up and the beginning potential
in the external circuit, current flows in the external circuit (1) in circuit-powering
mode, and (2) with greater energy collected upon the electrons from the
increased Poynting energy flow diverged into the circuit conductors.
- John puts in some electrons and potential and makes a
negative resistor. The action of the negative resistor then overpotentializes
both the battery-charging ions and the circuit-powering electrons. The
vacuum furnishes the extra potential energy. So John now has lots more
energy in the circuit than he himself put in, both to recharge the battery
and power the load.
- The net result is that the system eats its cake and has
it too, courtesy of having produced a negative resistor and tricked the
active vacuum to momentarily give it lots of excess energy (potential energy).
It collects some of that excess energy upon both the recharging ions and
the circuit electrons back-forced to power the circuit. Note that the
formation of the negative resistor actually produced in the external circuit
a "back emf" which is of the circuit powering type, even though
in the battery the ion current is still moving and accelerating in the
charging position -- exactly opposed to the electron current!
- So the timing and negative resistor effect simultaneously
introduce additional energy extracted from the vacuum to (1) the battery
charging process, and (2) the load powering process in the external circuit.
- Then we deliberately cut off the pulse sharply, with
the ions now moving in the charge direction and with the electrons in the
external circuit powering the load. The sharp cutoff rate produces a very
interesting effect here also, if we end it just precisely while most of
the pile-up (and higher potential) still exists at the plate-ion interface.
In that case, Lenz's law applies due to the sharp cutoff and it aids
us, since momentarily the negative resistor potential is even further dramatically
increased by the Lenz reaction! So even more potential energy momentarily
surges out onto the circuit electrons in the "powering the circuit"
mode, and even more potential energy simultaneously surges onto the ions
in the "charging the battery" mode.
- The result of this second effect is that (1) the negative
resistor is again increased, (2) even more energy is furnished from the
vacuum to the battery-charging process, and (3) even more energy is furnished
from the vacuum to the load-powering process.
- In short, the system suddenly and remarkably increases
the negative resistor effect, self-regauging itself for the second consecutive
time, and increasing the excess energy extracted from the vacuum!
- This second surge of excess energy comes directly from
the vacuum, from the suddenly increased negative resistor, via those suddenly
increased bidirectional longitudinal EM wave energy flows between the pile-up
and every point in all the surrounding space. That's what a bidirectional
set of wavepairs means; observable energy flows from the pile-up (source
dipole) to every point in external space, and from every point in external
space virtual (complex) energy flows to the source dipole.
- That is the second case where we cause the external circuit
to be "regauged" and change its potential energy freely, and
we cause the internal ions to be "regauged" and change their
potential energy freely.
- Again we accent that electrodynamicists already assume
that any EM system can freely change its energy at any time; it's called
"regauging". It is inexplicable why electrodynamicists have
not focused upon actually producing self-regauging circuits which asymmetrically
discharge their freely increased energy, as John has done, so that the
dissipated energy is used to recharge the battery while also powering the
load. Instead, the electrodynamicists continue to give us regauging circuits
which symmetrically discharge their freely increased energy, so that half
the dissipated energy is used to destroy the source dipole of the generator
or battery while the other half is dissipated in the external loads and
- On the other hand, John uses half the excess regauging
energy from the negative resistor to restore the battery (source) dipole,
and uses the other half to power the load and losses simultaneously. So
he asymmetrically discharges the free excitation energy received from the
vacuum via the negative resistor.
- But back to John's battery process. Now we have the
Lenz effect pulse finally removed and the ions moving in charging mode
but slowing down now. Since the Lenz law effect dies rapidly, we have
a rapid resumption of "draw" of electrons from the pile-up into
the external circuit to power it. But for a bit, the ions only start to
slow and have not yet stopped completely. They "overshoot" because
of their sluggishness, and keep on charging the battery a moment longer.
During this third moment, the external circuit is still being powered
even though the battery is still in charging mode.
- When all these "excess energy" mechanisms are
added, one finds that excess energy can be collected from the vacuum by
the negative resistor and used appropriately to produce a system with a
permissible overall COP1.0 performance. The dramatic difference in John's
method, from the conventional method, is that in John's method the same
current through the load does not pass back through the back emf of the
source dipole negative resistor to continually destroy it. On the contrary,
he inverts the phase of the current through the source dipole negative
resistor to continually restore it.
- There are several other schemes that can be used at this
point. If the follow-on pulsing etc. is matched to again initiate the
effects discussed, one can continue to draw power in the circuit while
charging the battery, etc. for about a succession of the three periods
of time: (1) the initial hysteresis pileup, formation of the negative resistor,
and associated effects, (2) the following Lenz law reaction, increase of
the negative resistor, and associated effects, and (3) the follow-on period
of simultaneous charging the battery and powering the circuit from the
pile-up while the overshoot of the ions is still slowing and ending.
- One trick John sometimes uses is to time the next pulse
front to arrive just at the time that the ions are almost but not quite
stopped in their "overshoot" charging mode and are preparing
to reverse into discharge mode (following the electrons in the external
circuit, which are already in that mode). With the exact timing, the whole
situation starts over. There are several other variations that John has
also used and found effective.
- In developing this methodology, John long ago built various
controllers and timers, and experimented with a variety of pulses, pulse
widths, and timing to get it all just right for a specific battery of interest.
He had one little battery-powered motor -- an inefficient little beast
with only about 35-40% normal efficiency -- which continuously "ran
off the battery" seemingly (actually, off the excess energy from the
negative resistor created and manipulated in the battery) for a couple
of years. The motor represented a "load" continually being driven
by the excess energy extracted from the vacuum by the negative resistor
continually created in the battery. He recharged the battery and ran the
motor directly off vacuum energy, using the precise set of negative resistor
effects just discussed.
- John has freely shared his work with many researchers.
E.g., an excellent microwave switching engineer named Bill Nelson visited
John, observed some of John's devices working, and reasoned correctly that
the motor was just a load and played no part in producing the excess energy.
So Nelson and another engineer used an electric light bulb as the load,
adjusted the pulses and timing appropriately, and produced a little unit
which kept its battery charged while continuously illuminating the light
bulb. John shared his research with Jim Watson, who succeeded in developing
a version that powered a much larger motor (8 kW), which he demonstrated
at one of the Tesla conferences at Colorado Springs. Watson and his family
were later to mysteriously drop out of all contact, so that even his own
financial backer could not find him. Ron Cole visited John's lab often,
and Ron and John built several successful and similar devices together.
- There are several other powering schemes that can be
worked out, using the negative resistor created inside the battery by splitting
the current phases. E.g., with the ions moving in discharge mode and the
circuit being powered, one can again introduce a sharp voltage pulse of
electrons for charging, onto the circuit. This of course invokes Lenz's
law, dramatically increasing the powering of the circuit and the energy
upon the ions driving the circuit powering. Now the pile-up occurs even
stronger, because the ions keep bearing down in charging mode with increased
energy, while the electrons are forced to keep boring in much more densely
to oppose them, yet on the other end the electrons are even more strongly
powering the circuit momentarily because of the increased regauging energy.
So the pile-up becomes even higher than before, increasing the potential
of the pile-up even more due to the "charge squeeze" effect being
greater. In other words, we make an even greater "negative resistor"
at that pile-up. This will greatly amplify the potential out into the
circuit, and also greatly increase the potential on the "powering"
ions, so that the ions have more energy to give to the pile-up and to the
circuit, and so do the electrons in the circuit. Again, when the "back-popping"
pulse sharply cuts off on the trailing edge, one gets a Lenz law effect
of further increase, etc.
- There are a great variety of useful excess energy schemes
which can be worked out and applied, all using the excess energy freely
obtained from the vacuum by the negative resistor created and manipulated
in the battery.
- Once one understands John's negative resistor effect
and how one gets it, how one increases it, and how one sustains it or repeats
it rapidly, then one can adjust that motor (or other load) and that battery
to function as a self-powering system, perfectly permissible by the laws
of physics and thermodynamics. Because of the negative resistor effect
and its extraction of excess energy from the vacuum, this open dissipative
system can output more energy than the chemical energy that is dissipated
in the battery. In fact, the chemical energy is not dissipated, but remains,
when the timing and negative resistance effects are properly adjusted.
Then everything just runs off the vacuum energy from the negative resistor.
- The point is this. The system has two major currents
greatly differing in their momentum and responses, that can be exploited
to get these negative resistor effects., So why do all our theorists just
continue to assume a "simple current" in and through the battery?
If one ignores the duality, one will just mush around any transient negative
resistor effect and the effect will not help, because one will get it wrong
as much as one gets it right.
- But if we know what is happening in there, and if we
deliberately manipulate the phenomena as John Bedini has done for years,
we can make a battery recharge itself at the same time that it is powering
the external circuit, because of a negative resistor formed in the battery
and properly manipulated. Actually the energy extracted from the vacuum
is powering both the battery's recharging and the circuit's loads and losses.
- We point out that these negative resistor effects can
in fact occur in a battery that is almost completely discharged, and John
has also demonstrated such specific negative resistor formation and operation
in a nearly uncharged battery for a sustained period of time.
- For ease in building and timing the system, John often
prefers to use two batteries and switch between them. He will charge one
as ostensibly an additional part of the load, but all the while adjusting
his pulses in the charging process to dramatically open the process and
get the injection of a lot of excess vacuum energy in there via similar
phenomenology to what we described above. Meantime, the other battery
is powering the circuit normally. Then he just switches, and recharges
the first battery including evoking the negative resistor effects in it,
while using power from the second, recharged battery. The amount of excess
charging energy he tricks the vacuum into giving him while charging the
battery, is "free" energy he can then use to power the system
when he switches the recharged battery into system-powering position.
He continues to switch, which yields a self-powering open dissipative system,
freely extracting all its energy from the active vacuum. In that case,
he makes the charging battery charge a lot faster by the negative resistor
effects than just with the simple energy he inputs in his pulsing and in
his "normal charging currents" to the battery. He "opens"
that battery-charging process and subsystem the way we described, so that
the vacuum furnishes more than half the charging input energy.
- Now for the skeptics who love to quote the second law
of classical thermodynamics. Classical thermodynamics is equilibrium thermodynamics.
While the system is open and receiving excess energy from the vacuum,
it is far from equilibrium and does not have to obey the old equilibrium
thermodynamics with its infamous second law. Indeed, classical thermodynamics
does not even apply, including the second law. Here is a magic truth:
The energy of an open system not in equilibrium is always greater than
the energy of the same system in equilibrium. Bye-bye second law of thermodynamics
for non-equilibrium systems.
- In John's systems, the thermodynamics of a system far
from equilibrium with its active environment (in this case, the active
vacuum) rigorously applies. As is well-known in that kind of thermodynamics,
such an open disequilibrium system is permitted to (1) self-order, (2)
self-oscillate or self-rotate, (3) output more energy than the operator
himself inputs (the excess is just taken from the active environment, in
this case the vacuum), (4) power itself and a load also (in that case,
all the energy is taken from the active environment, in this case the active
vacuum), and (5) exhibit negentropy. John's devices have exhibited all
five effects for years.
- In other words, the laws of physics already permit this
to happen. We just have to correct the foolish old flawed notion in electrodynamics
of what powers the external circuit. Batteries and generators do not use
the energy input to them (generator shaft energy) or available to them
(chemical energy in the battery) to power the external circuit! I fully
explain that in the IC-2000 paper. The chemical energy available in a battery
and the shaft energy input to a generator are dissipated only to restore
the source dipole that our closed current loop power systems keep destroying
- No laws of nature, laws of physics, or laws of thermodynamics
are violated by John's novel negative resistor approach. The conservation
of energy law is obeyed at all times, as of course is recognized for open
dissipative systems. As an example, Ilya Prigogine was awarded a Nobel
Prize for his contributions to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of systems
similar to those we are discussing.
- I just wanted to set the record straight. You can make
an overunity system anytime you wish, with adroit use of a lead-acid battery
(or two of them) where you pay meticulous attention to the production and
use of a negative resistor inside the battery itself. The science is there
and it is correct. It's already in physics, but it isn't in the seriously
flawed classical electrodynamics. The full basis has been in the textbooks
for decades, but it has not been applied by EM power system designers.
Instead, they continue to ignore the active vacuum and the creation and
manipulation of negative resistors in batteries by current splitting and
- How many readers have thought of using the appreciably
different response times of the electron current and the ion current?
How many professors have thought of it? How many textbooks mention it?
What EM text points out that a scalar potential is actually a set of bidirectional
longitudinal EM wave energy flows, conditioning and organizing the entire
vacuum? What paper in a scientific journal contains it? One gets the
point after only a moment's reflection.
- Now for the scientists, advanced engineers, and strategic
planners. What is needed to make all this quite rigorous is the development
and usage of a dual instrumentation system., We need to develop a proper
instrumentation system to measure and portray the ion current in the battery
and its actions, and simultaneously to measure and portray the electron
current in there at the interface. Then one can add the standard instruments
to monitor the electron current, voltage, phase angles, and power in the
- Well, to get those two "internal" instrumentation
systems, we need to enlist some good electrochemists, who know about measuring
things like that, know about overpotentials on electrodes and plates and
such, understand all the internal chemical and ion reactions including
their energetics, and have worked out measurement techniques for such matters.
To an electrical engineer, the problem usually appears unsolvable (many,
e.g., have no knowledge of overpotential theory, or of double surfaces
theory, or differentiating multiple current types in a battery, etc.).
- We just need a really good straightforward and well-funded
scientific project by a good scientific team, to develop the instrumentation
and procedures, and then to perform enough experimentation to thoroughly
explore and measure the phenomenology in all its glory. Then the leading
theorists can produce a good theoretical model, including of the interaction
between vacuum energy and the circuit, while the developers give us a good
measurement and instrumentation system for precisely measuring such systems.
Once we get the experimentally-fitted theoretical model and we have the
instrumentation system, then we're off and running with ordinary applied
engineering, to design and build self-powering battery-powered systems
(actually as open systems adroitly extracting and using energy from the
ubiquitous vacuum) on a massive scale for the world market.
- Major universities and laboratories should fund such
work as a matter of great scientific priority. So should the National
Science Foundation and National Academy of Sciences, the Department of
Energy, the private research institutes, the Environmental Foundations,
etc. If they do so, then we'll all have overunity devices powering our
automobiles and homes and factories straightaway. And we will also take
a giant stride toward cleaning up the pollution of the biosphere.
- We need, however, to stress again one shocking point
above all else. Batteries and generators do not themselves power their
external circuits! Please read that again, and do not miss the importance
of what we are saying. All that the dissipation of the shaft energy input
to a generator does, or dissipation of the chemical energy available in
a battery does, is perform work upon the internal charges to separate them
and form the negative resistor source dipole. Not a single joule of that
dissipated generator shaft energy or that battery's dissipated chemical
energy goes out onto the power line. Every electrical circuit and electrical
load is now and always has been powered by energy extracted directly from
the vacuum by the source dipole acting as a negative resistor due to its
known broken symmetry in the fierce vacuum energy flux.
- To clearly understand that startling fact, we must temporarily
set aside the 136-year old flawed electrodynamics (Maxwell's seminal paper
was given in 1864), and turn to particle physics, because the old electrodynamicists
did not have an active vacuum in the equations, and it still isn't in there.
- In the latter 1950s, particle physicists discovered and
experimentally proved broken symmetry, and also that every dipole is a
broken symmetry in the continuous virtual energy exchange between vacuum
and dipole charges. The very definition of "broken symmetry"
means that something virtual has become observable. This means that part
of that fierce, virtual, disordered energy continually absorbed by the
end charges of the dipole, is not re-radiated as virtual, disordered energy
-- but as observable, ordered energy. In short, the ubiquitous source
dipole is in fact a ubiquitous negative resistor par excellence.
- The source dipole, once made, is a true negative resistor
that freely extracts observable, usable field energy from the vacuum, and
pours it out through the terminals of the generator or battery. The outflowing
energy moves at light speed through all space surrounding the conductors
of the external circuit, and generally parallel to them. It's a tiny bit
convergent into the wires, because in the "sheath" or boundary
layer of the flow right down on the surface of the conductors, that part
of the flow strikes the surface charges and gets diverged into the wires
to power up the electrons and the circuit.
- Every electrical circuit and every electrical load is
and always has been powered by energy extracted directly from the vacuum
by the negative resistor source dipole. That statement is fully justified
in particle physics, but not electrodynamics. The electrodynamicists and
leaders of the scientific community have refused to change the flawed foundations
and gaps in EM theory, even though a great deal has been learned since
1867 that substantially changes the foundations assumptions used originally
to construct the theory.
- The energy extracted by the source dipole from the vacuum
sprays out of the terminals of the battery or generator, filling all space
around the external conductors. A good illustration of this incredible
energy flow is shown in Kraus, Electromagnetics, Fourth Edition. The magnitude
of the energy flow extracted is so great as to boggle the imagination.
In a simple little circuit, it's about 10exp13 times as much as is intercepted
in that little "sheath flow" by the circuit and diverged into
the circuit to power it. Well, the enormity of that energy flow extracted
from the vacuum by the source dipole is totally mystifying and embarrassing,
or it was highly embarrassing back there in the 1880s.
- And therein lies one of the greatest scientific faux
pas of all time.
- Energy flow through space was discovered independently
by Heaviside and Poynting and at about the same time. Poynting only thought
of, and accounted, the feeble little component of energy flow that actually
entered the circuit -- in short, the energy in that "little sheath
or strip" flow right down on the surface of the conductors. He never
even imagined all that nondiverged, nonintercepted energy component missing
the circuit entirely and just being wasted. But Poynting published prestigiously,
while Heaviside published more obscurely, and the theory of EM energy flow
was named after Poynting.
- Heaviside realized the entire energy flow, including
the huge nondiverged component that entirely misses the circuit -- the
component that Poynting missed. Heaviside also corrected Poynting on the
overall flow direction (Poynting missed it by 90 degrees). Note that Maxwell
was already dead at the time.
- Then the great Lorentz entered the energy flow picture,
and confronted a massive problem. How was one to account for the inexplicably
enormous nondiverged Heaviside energy flow that was pouring forth from
those terminals? And why did the circuit catch such a feeble little Poynting
fraction of the overall flow? That output is far more energy than even
a host of power systems contained or were thought to output. At the time
there was absolutely no conceivable way to account for the enormous magnitude
of the nondiverging energy flow component.
- So Lorentz hit upon a stratagem. He eliminated the problem
rather than solving it. He reasoned that the nondiverged Heaviside component
of the energy flow was "physically insignificant" because it
was not used in the circuit and did not even enter it. So he integrated
the energy flow vector itself around a closed surface surrounding any little
volume of interest. Voila! That little trick discarded that bothersome
huge nondiverged Heaviside component of the energy flow (it's physically
still there around every circuit, but the circuit does not catch it and
the electrodynamicists just ignore it.). Lorentz's trick retained the
Poynting component, and since that is the energy that enters the circuit
and is collected by it, then it will be the energy that the circuit dissipates
in its losses and loads. So it will match our instrumental measurements,
since we measure dissipation. I have a 1902 reference by Lorentz where
he did that little integration trick, but it is in a book so he very probably
did it earlier in a scientific paper which I have yet to locate.
- Anyway, following Lorentz the electrodynamicists just
arbitrarily threw away far more available EM energy associated with every
circuit than they retained. All the electrodynamicists fell into line,
and they are still in the same line after a century, marching along to
Lorentz's cadence. The neglected Heaviside energy flow is still physically
there as a special negentropic organization of the vacuum surrounding every
circuit, just waiting to be used. E.g., if you retroreflect the passed
Heaviside energy flow component, you can send it back across the circuit's
surface charges again and catch some more of it. Do it iteratively lots
of times -- as in intensely scattering optically active media -- and you
will have asymmetrical self-regauging and what has been called "lasing
without population inversion". Or just resonate an intercepting charge
-- as per Letokhov and Bohren -- and it will sweep out a greater geometrical
reaction cross section and collect additional energy from the Heaviside
component (18 times as much more energy as an identical but static particle
collects). Letokhov has been publishing in all sorts of journals on this
subject since 1957. In an article in Contemporary Physics he has freely
called such excess energy collection and emission a process for a "Maxwell's
demon" -- in other words, a special kind of negative resistor.
- The bottom line is that true overunity systems and negative
resistors have been built and demonstrated by several inventors and scientists
such as Bedini, Golden, Nelson, Watson, Letokhov, Bohren, Chung, Kron,
Sweet, etc. They do work, and in fact John can demonstrate one at any
time. But instead of valid scientific attention and courteous scientific
treatment, the scientists and inventors who have pioneered this legitimate
overunity area have been hounded, persecuted, vilified, etc. Careers of
legitimate scientists attempting to scientifically investigate this area
have often been ruined.
- What is needed is not another group of grasping "vulture
capitalists" and stock scam artists seeking a fast fortune by selling
stock and licenses to the gullible public. What is needed is for the organized
scientific community to face its responsibility and its serious errors
in electrodynamics, and (1) correct the terribly flawed classical electrodynamics
as a matter of the highest scientific priority, including at the foundations
level, (2) fund legitimate overunity EM power system investigators, scientists,
engineers, and serious inventors before they produce the final demonstration
model; just as they have funded hot fusion researchers for decades without
the process ever adding a single watt to the power line, (3) set aside
at least 1% of the energy research budget for high priority vacuum-energy-powered
systems and phenomenology research, and (4) recognize that conventional
leading institutions which are bastions of the present theory have zero
experience, zero expertise and usually zero institutional tolerance for
the new overunity EM systems area. They do not even have, and do not wish
to develop, any legitimate theory of permissible EM power systems as open
systems in disequilibrium with the active vacuum, freely using vacuum energy
via the creation and manipulation of internal negative resistors.
- The scientific community -- including the leading scientific
journals and scientific associations -- now must honestly face its energy
and biospheric responsibilities and reassess its adversarial position on
overunity EM power systems. For decades the community has been a major
part of the vacuum energy problem, not part of the vacuum energy solution.
It already intercepts, controls, "cuts up," prepares and sends
down the energy research budget packages, which all those research professors,
sharp grad students, and sharp young postdocs must seek funding from, in
fierce competition. The scientific community has already pre-determined
what shall and what shall not be allowed as permissible EM power system
research. And its woeful past record as an adversary of overunity EM power
systems speaks for itself. Its years of neglecting and opposing practical
electrodynamically-initiated vacuum energy extraction have resulted in
the ever-increasing pollution of the planet and a threat to the life and
survival of every species, including the human species itself.
- It is scientifically unacceptable when the scientific
community still implicitly proclaims the "source charge" as ostensibly
creating all that enormous energy in its fields and potentials reaching
across the universe in all directions. In short, classical EM excludes
the interaction of the vacuum in its power system theory, and implies that
the "source charge" freely creates all that field energy and
potential energy reaching across the universe in all directions, and creates
it right out of nothing. Yet this same community habitually confronts
the serious open dissipative system EM researcher with the label of being
a "perpetual motion machine nut". In our very worst nightmares,
we could not begin to advocate such a vast array of perpetual motion machines
as does the present scientific establishment, which advocates every source
charge in the universe as a perpetual motion machine of the grossest kind,
ignoring a resolution of the source charge problem that has been available
for almost half a century in particle physics.
- Many skilled scientists have tried to get electrodynamics
changed and the flaws corrected -- including Nobelist Feynman and the great
John Wheeler, as well as many others such as Barrett, Evans, Cornille,
Lehnert, Yang, Mills, Vigier, de Broglie, etc. When Maxwell constructed
his theory, the electron and atom and atomic nucleus had not been discovered.
The three dozen electrodynamicists worldwide all believed in the material
ether, so to them there was no place in all the world where mass was absent.
A "charge" was just a piece of electric fluid, nothing more,
nothing less. Maxwell wrote a material fluid flow theory, and he also
left out half the energy, half the wave in space, etc. because he omitted
Newtonian third law reaction. Both mechanics and electrodynamics continue
to omit one of the most fundamental principles of all nature: that the
effect acts back through the observation process upon the cause. This
principle does appear, however, in general relativity. But in mechanics
and electrodynamics, as a result of this terrible omission, Newton's third
law remains an effect without a cause, mystically appearing out of nowhere
and producing that half of the energy and effect that Maxwell erroneously
- The purpose of this long write-up is to set the record
straight on what John Bedini has been doing in his overunity battery powered
devices, including some that have been self-powering.
- A final word on entropy. Simply put, entropy refers
to increasing energy disorder, where disorder is the effect. But the back-reaction
of the effect upon the cause, omitted from mechanics and electrodynamics
but present in general relativity, has not been taken into account. That
principle means that each time there is a disordering of energy, there
is simultaneously a reordering of an equal amount of energy. Entropy and
negentropy occur as twins, simply from the occurrence of the potential
as a harmonic set of bidirectional phase conjugate pairs of longitudinal
EM waves. We usually apply one set of those waves (the forward time set)
and ignore the second set (the time-reversed set or phase conjugate set).
In every experiment where an incoming EM wave from space affects a receiving
wire antenna, not only do the Drude electrons recoil, but also the positive
nuclei recoil with equal energy, though highly damped because of the enormous
m/q ratio of the nuclei. Eerily, hundreds of thousands of scientists and
engineers have been taught to measure the Drude electron recoil and state
they are measuring the "incoming wave" disturbance. Not so.
They are measuring the effect of half of the interaction; the other half
of the cause omitted by Maxwell interacted with the time-reversed nuclei,
and produced the Newtonian third law recoil forces. Every scientist will
acknowledge the accompanying recoil of the nuclei, then will mystically
invoke a demon who stands in the wire, observes the disturbance of the
electrons, and kicks the nuclei equally and oppositely. A similar situation
occurs in a wire transmitting antenna, where the recoiling nuclei also
perturb the surrounding spacetime with equal energy as do the perturbed
Drude electrons. Equal energy perturbation of ST means equal ST curvature
perturbation. So two ST perturbation waves are launched simultaneously,
not one. One is a time-forward wave, and one is a time-reversed wave,
paired together. Look at it this way. The vacuum is a giant potential,
which means it can inherently be decomposed into Whittaker's bidirectional
longitudinal EM wavepair sets. Any perturbation of the vacuum must a priori
disturb those bidirectional waves, thereby producing bidirectional wavepair
disturbances, not "plucked string" waves. There are no taut
physical strings in the vacuum! Maxwell omitted the time-reversed half
of the vacuum disturbance, because the atom, nucleus, and electron had
not even been discovered at the time, and because he assumed the taut string
wave a priori. The reasoning was just that a single electrical fluid under
tensile stress was perturbed.
- Anyway, I wanted to explain what John Bedini is doing
in that lead acid battery, and why his systems really do work. He has
done enormous experimentation for years. He's built many units which exhibited
the overunity effect due to creating a negative resistor in the battery,
and some which also exhibited the self-powering effect. With a little
proper scientific funding and support, a team of scientists working with
Bedini can quickly produce working overunity EM power systems, the theoretical
model, and the instrumentation system. Bedini-type systems are easily
and cheaply produced in conventional manufacturing plants. Development
and availability of such Bedini-type negative resistor systems will start
a rapid, world-wide resolution of the so-called "energy" problem.
That will also start a rapid clean-up of this suffering biosphere that
is now being poisoned and destroyed by hydrocarbon combustion waste products
at an ever-increasing rate. It will also revolutionize the living standards
of the developing nations and peoples.
- In spite of the previous and present vilification of
the overunity researchers by the scientific community, I have great faith
in the scientific method, once it is permitted to function and be funded.
But just now, our own scientific community continues to impose seriously
flawed theories and approaches upon the laboratories and scientists, and
actively blocks the innovative overunity EM power systems research that
could save this planet and humanity. We can do better than that, and we
must do better than that. Else in a few more decades none of the rest
of the scientific works will matter anyway, as the nature we are now destroying
turns upon this upstart humanity and destroys us all.
- Thanks, Jerry, for bearing with this very long write-up
and explanation of Bedini's method. It is of great importance -- to the
experimenters, the inventors, the scientists, our nation, and every human
being on this planet.
- Very best wishes,
- Tom Bearden
- SIGHTINGS HOMEPAGE
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