Global Warming Is Choking
Ocean Life Worldwide
Penn State

Warming oceans are choking off marine life at an alarming pace and shrinking food supplies for people and other creatures dependent on the seas, according to a report by two environmental groups.
The report, released by the Washington-based World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Marine Conservation Biology Institute in Redmond, Washington, said global warming was starving several species, including Pacific salmon, and melting polar ice that supports a range of mammals and birds.
"Warmer temperatures are raising the biological cost of living for marine species," said Elliot Norse, president of the biology institute.
The groups blamed emissions of carbon dioxide and other "greenhouse" gases, produced primarily in the United States and other industrial countries that burn fossil fuels for energy.
By thickening the Earth's atmosphere and trapping heat at the surface, greenhouse gases have helped melt vast tracts of polar ice, raised water temperatures and forced some species to migrate to colder climates, the report said.
"These disturbing results demonstrate that global warming is coming home to roost," said Adam Markham, director of WWF's climate programme.
"The story will only get worse unless governments and business take the steps to stop it."
Ocean temperatures have risen more than one degree Celsius in some places over the past 60 years and will rise at least another couple of degrees over the next century if emissions continue to grow at current rates.
Global warming has coincided with an increased incidence of the El Nino phenomenon, in which warm water concentrated in the eastern Pacific creates volatile weather patterns, it said.
Centuries ago El Nino occurred every two to 15 years, but the pattern was repeated five times between 1990 and 1997 and record high global average temperatures were recorded in 1997 and 1998, the report said.
The oceanic heat has devastated coral reefs and ice shelves that house species including algae, plankton and crustaceans, cutting the food supply to larger animals including whales, penguins and sea lions, it said.
Rising sea levels also threaten to ruin coastal wetlands and other habitats that support marine animals and commercial fisheries, the report concluded.
Ute Collier, climate campaigner for the conservation group the World Wide Fund for Nature-UK said a report prepared by the group showing a similar trend should "set alarm bells ringing in capitals throughout the world".