Dr. Bruce Maccabbee
On UFO Electromagnetic Propulsion
From George Filer <>
MUFON Eastern Director - Filer's Files #30
From UFO UpDates-Toronto <>

Dr. Bruce Maccabee, MUFON's Maryland Director writes: Regarding your comments on UFO propulsion. "The phenomenon associated with the presence of a UFOs can be accounted for within the following scientific parameters: The craft emit Electromagnetic radiation measured isotropically that is in all directions of approximately one megawatt, that is a million watts." Bruce states, "This number must be considered a complete guess. The only real data we have (here I ignore any possible data the "control group"-- should there be one -- might have; I refer only to "open literature data") is that, at least in some cases, UFOs radiate visible light in the hundreds of KW to MW range. However, the visible spectrum is only part of it. A photo taken by Ed Walters in the presence of witnesses in Pensacola, Florida on March 12, 1991, using infrared film indicates that there could be many (ten? hundred?) more times in the infrared (see UFOs ARE REAL, HERE'S THE PROOF, Avon, pg. 177). And there are numerous other wavelengths as well. Hence "one megawatt" MIGHT be an underestimate in some cases.
One the other hand, it might also be an OVERESTIMATE in other cases. The wave length is of one-tenth to one twenty- five millimeters at sixty to eighty cycles per second. Where does this come from? That is, wavelength = 0.1 to 0.25 mm and at "60 to 80 Hz" I don't know where you get these numbers, but as stated this makes no sense if the "60 to 80 Hz" refers to the electromagnetic wave frequency (the "carrier" wave). Electromagnetic radiation travels at the speed of about 300,000,000 m/sec (or 186,000 miles per second). The relation ship between wavelength, w, frequency, f, and speed, s is: wf = s. Hence a wavelength of 0.1 to 0.25 mm = 0.0001 to 0.00025 m corresponds to f = 300,000,000 /(0.1 to 0,.25 ) = 3,000,000,000 to 1,200,000,000 cycles per second or Hz (these numbers could be written in exponential notation as 3E9 and 1.2E9 Hz or 3 Gigahertz and 1.2 Gigzhertz). These are known as "microwave" frequencies. They are still 1/1000 the frequency of infrared radiation. On the other hand, if the "60 to 80 Hz" refers to frequency of radiation pulses (of 1.2 to 3 GHz basic "carrier" frequency.. the pulses are a modulation of the carrier), then the only parameter still needed to define the wave would be the pulse duration.
There appears to be an undulation motion and high frequency oscillations of constant amplitude. ??? Where is this from? The Pulse width is ten to forty microseconds. The pulse is a brief surge of voltage or pulsating. Pulsating what? Current? This statement provides the pulse duration implying the 1.2 to 3 GHz carrier wave is "on-off" modulated (like a square wave) with the carrier being turned on 60 to 80 times a second and each turn-on duration is 20-40 microseconds. Let's pick 80 Hz and 40 microseconds. The time between turn-ons is 1/80 = 0.0125 second = 12,500 microseconds between turn-ons (I could wait that long to get turned on!). The duty cycle is the ratio of the turned on time (40 microseconds...much too short for me well, we got to find some humor in this stuff) to the time between turn ons (12,500 microseconds) or 0.0032. If it radiates a megawatt on average, then the peak power must be 1/0.0032 or 312 times greater, In other words, 312 MW peak power pulses of 40 microseconds duration each and occurring at a rate of 80 Hz will put out an average of 1 MW. I should point out that 300 MW is an "awesome" peak power!
On top of the craft is an exceptionally high magnetic field which is about a million times more powerful than we know how to produce on the Earth. The very few actual measurements or "chance observations" we have do suggest huge magnetic fields, occasionally! However, one may assume that such strong fields are not always present because magnetic effects are not always detected. Also, whether a field will be detected or depends upon whether this is a static field (constant polarity and constant amplitude) or an alternating field (polarity switching at some rate, as in an electromagnetic wave). A static field or slowly varying field could produce some of the reported effects on mechanical systems (noisy road sign, wobbling compass). There is also a slow ripple effect of about ten per second. That ripple is what causes the spinning of compasses? Maybe. Compasses could also spin if a "non-rippling" magnetic field source were simply to move past a compass. Incidentally, just how many such observations are there? (I already know about Fred Johnson, prospector, June 24, 1947)
Regarding the high power of the UFOs, we have found that some fairly simple instruments may be useful for tracking them. They are know to cause disturbances to compass readings. Rather than watching the compass continuously it is possible to get an alarm from any compass that is setting still and starts deviating. A simple optical- electrical circuit of the "beam breaking" type can be used to measure the deviation of a compass needle from its rest position. Requires a large magnetic field from a close UFO to set it off. Scanning of the radio frequency spectrum can sometimes pick up electrical disturbances caused by UFOs. This can be done with rudimentary equipment such as radio receivers. Amateur radio enthusiasts listen to a range of about 200 kHz through about 30 MHz. Any actual detections confirmed by observation, or is this a guess?
There are cases of radio disturbance and TV disturbance...but this does not always happen (just as car-stopping does not always happen). These would be the short wave listening hobbyists. The ham radio operators would also have these, but could scan additional bands of higher frequency. They could, if sufficient interest were generated, build or modify equipment to scan frequencies in the microwave region. Radar receivers often used by high speed drivers can also be used to measure the microwave range energy that is sent out by many UFOs. Note: radar stations use microwave radiation of various frequencies. they also have very sensitive receivers and large antennas. Numerous radar detections have been recorded. However, only rarely (I know of one case) is there a real likelihood that radiation FROM the UFO (as opposed to radar radiation bounced off the UFO) has been recorded. Hence I would conclude that the likelihood of detecting a UFO by listening for microwave radiation is low at best. Editors Note: Most of my data on UFO capabilities are taken from MUFON's former Director of Research, Jim McCamble's data. Although the data is thought to be accurate, there are numerous types and models of UFOs and each could produce various types of ionization, and electromagnetic effects. I also suggest reading UFOs Are Real by Dr. Maccabee an excellent book.