- A recent publication by two prominent
historians, Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman, provide convincing documentary
evidence for America's secret germ warfare in Korea and China during 1951-53.
- Now is the time to set the record straight
on this shameful chapter of the American history in which a handful of
misguided military commanders committed war crimes against the Korean and
Chinese people - "the Yellow sub-humans" (here I am quoting US
Army Gen. Ridgeway, Supreme Commander of the UN forces in 1951, who ordered
germ warfare in Korea and China with the secret support of the US JCS).
- A recent US News magazine article - Unmasking
an old lie: A Korean War charge is exposed as a hoax - cites Soviet archives
"still closed" to the public (but presumably shown to a chosen
few for "eyes" only!). In addition, it refers to declassified
"secret" cables between Stalin, Mao Zedong and Kim Il Sung.
- However, careful reading of the cited
Kim, Mao and Stalin cables (Cold War International History Project) shows
that these cables had nothing to do with any germ warfare, faked or otherwise.
We have no access to the so-called "still closed" Soviet archives
to confirm the US News article's allegation.
- In 1995, a germ warfare "expert"
Rolicka published an article - Forgotten episode of the 'forgotten war
in Military Medicine (Volume 160, page 97) - that disputes the allegations
of biological warfare in Korea on the basis of "witness" accounts
of two Eastern-bloc journalists, Tibor Meray from Hungary and Lucjan Pracki
from Poland, who were in Korea from August 1951 until September 1952.
- Rolicka also cites two "prominent"
microbiologists (deceased in 1950's) who allegedly discounted the germ
warfare allegations. Rolicka admits that these "scientists",
who did not examine any evidence, based their judgment on statements of
the two reporters mentioned above.
- Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman
spent some 20 years digging up facts on the US germ warfare in Korea. They
obtained hitherto classified documents - US, Chinese and North Korean -
and interviewed many of the participants. Cited below are some of their
- The US Germ Warfare was a black op (covert
- The US government, let alone the American
people, was not aware of what the US germ warfare units were doing in Korea.
When the Communists announced the first case of germ warfare incident in
December 1950, the inspector general of the US Air Force launched an investigation.
However, he was lied to by his own commanders in the theater.
- For example, Col. William G. Moore (AO
418054), commander of the 3rd Bomb Squadron, made a sworn statement claiming
that his planes dropped psywar leaflets warning civilians prior to air
attacks. However, "Operations Order 141-52" and "Bomber
Mission Report" (post raid briefings) show that the "leaflets"
were in fact biological weapons code-named #8281 and that the "leaflets"
were dropped by the rear-guard planes (i.e., after the bombs). The inspector
general took Col. Moore's word and did not pursue this matter any further.
Had he examined the flight orders and post-mission reports, he would have
discovered that Col. Moore was not telling the truth.
- The Air Force commanders involved in
the germ warfare routinely burned flight orders and post-flight debriefings.
However, US intelligence organs kept copies of the documents and fortunately
for the historians, some of these documents have been found and declassified.
- Confessions of US Flyers Recanted Under
- At least 36 of the captured American
flyers "confessed" to dropping biological bombs on targets in
Korea and China. This lot included Col. Frank H. Schwable, chief of staff,
1st Marine Air Wing. These officers were repatriated in 1953 and recanted
their confessions soon after their return under threat of a court-martial.
- The confessors disclosed where the biological
weapons were manufactured (Terre Haute, Indiana), the command structure
of the germ warfare (Unit 406 based in Japan), types of germs (the types
developed by the Japanese germ warfare units) and details on the bombing
- Who ordered the US Germ Warfare in Korea?:
- In October 1951, in the aftermath of
Gen. MacArthur's ill-conceived "Home by Christmas" campaign that
resulted in loss of over 60,000 UN troops in North Korea, the US Joint
Chiefs of Staff hand-delivered a secret order to Gen. Ridgeway to start
germ warfare on a limited experimental scale in Korea. Another JCS directive
(JCS #1837/29) issued on February 25, 1952 authorized "a larger scale"
field tests. The American flyers were given brief lectures on germ warfare.
They were told that germ warfare was a top secret and that disclosing it
to anyone would lead to a court-martial and if convicted, death as the
- Who ran the US Germ Warfare in Korea
- A special op center "Joint Operations
Center" kept a close watch on germ bombing missions. Mission reports
were sent to the JOC through a separate secret communication channel. The
1st Marine Air Wing under the direction of the Fifth Air Force carried
out the secret missions. Col. Mahurin, a CIA officer, received a basic
training in germ warfare at the Fort Derrick (The US Germ Warfare HQ) and
directed 'special' missions in Korea.
- The US CIA placed agents in North Korea
and China and collected information on the effectiveness of the germ warfare
bombings raids conducted by the Marine warplanes. Other military intelligence
units gathered amassed vast amount of intelligence on epidemics and general
health of the Communist armies and civilians. --------
- The United States and Biological Warfare:
Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea by Stephen Endicott and Edward
- Related Webs:
- Unmasking an old lie: A Korean War charge
is exposed as a hoax (US News)
- Cold War International History Project
- Rolicka M. - Forgotten episode of the
- Medic: The Autobiography of Gen. Crawford
- A History Of Bio-Chemical Weapons: By
- US Army History: Biowar
- Biological Warfare: A Historical Perspective
- Biological Warfare and the Implications
- Biological Weapons FAQ
- A Preliminary Review of Studies of Japanese
Biological Warfare Unit 731 in
- the United States - Tien-wei Wu
- The Code of Silence
- China Finds Evidence Of Japanese Germ
Warfare During WWII
- THE MUKDEN FILES: American POWs claim
germ warfare coverup by U.S.
- Unit 731: Testimony by Hal Gold
- The Other Holocaust
- A Half Century Of Denial
- Factories of Death : Japanese Biological
Warfare 1932-45 and the American
- Biowar Worldwide
- Japan's Germ Warfare and the Korean War
- Lee Wha Rang, July 27, 1996