The Truth About The US
Germ Warfare in Korea
By Lee Wha Rang
A recent publication by two prominent historians, Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman, provide convincing documentary evidence for America's secret germ warfare in Korea and China during 1951-53.
Now is the time to set the record straight on this shameful chapter of the American history in which a handful of misguided military commanders committed war crimes against the Korean and Chinese people - "the Yellow sub-humans" (here I am quoting US Army Gen. Ridgeway, Supreme Commander of the UN forces in 1951, who ordered germ warfare in Korea and China with the secret support of the US JCS).
A recent US News magazine article - Unmasking an old lie: A Korean War charge is exposed as a hoax - cites Soviet archives "still closed" to the public (but presumably shown to a chosen few for "eyes" only!). In addition, it refers to declassified "secret" cables between Stalin, Mao Zedong and Kim Il Sung.
However, careful reading of the cited Kim, Mao and Stalin cables (Cold War International History Project) shows that these cables had nothing to do with any germ warfare, faked or otherwise. We have no access to the so-called "still closed" Soviet archives to confirm the US News article's allegation.
In 1995, a germ warfare "expert" Rolicka published an article - Forgotten episode of the 'forgotten war in Military Medicine (Volume 160, page 97) - that disputes the allegations of biological warfare in Korea on the basis of "witness" accounts of two Eastern-bloc journalists, Tibor Meray from Hungary and Lucjan Pracki from Poland, who were in Korea from August 1951 until September 1952.
Rolicka also cites two "prominent" microbiologists (deceased in 1950's) who allegedly discounted the germ warfare allegations. Rolicka admits that these "scientists", who did not examine any evidence, based their judgment on statements of the two reporters mentioned above.
Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman spent some 20 years digging up facts on the US germ warfare in Korea. They obtained hitherto classified documents - US, Chinese and North Korean - and interviewed many of the participants. Cited below are some of their findings.
The US Germ Warfare was a black op (covert action):
The US government, let alone the American people, was not aware of what the US germ warfare units were doing in Korea. When the Communists announced the first case of germ warfare incident in December 1950, the inspector general of the US Air Force launched an investigation. However, he was lied to by his own commanders in the theater.
For example, Col. William G. Moore (AO 418054), commander of the 3rd Bomb Squadron, made a sworn statement claiming that his planes dropped psywar leaflets warning civilians prior to air attacks. However, "Operations Order 141-52" and "Bomber Mission Report" (post raid briefings) show that the "leaflets" were in fact biological weapons code-named #8281 and that the "leaflets" were dropped by the rear-guard planes (i.e., after the bombs). The inspector general took Col. Moore's word and did not pursue this matter any further. Had he examined the flight orders and post-mission reports, he would have discovered that Col. Moore was not telling the truth.
The Air Force commanders involved in the germ warfare routinely burned flight orders and post-flight debriefings. However, US intelligence organs kept copies of the documents and fortunately for the historians, some of these documents have been found and declassified.
Confessions of US Flyers Recanted Under Duress:
At least 36 of the captured American flyers "confessed" to dropping biological bombs on targets in Korea and China. This lot included Col. Frank H. Schwable, chief of staff, 1st Marine Air Wing. These officers were repatriated in 1953 and recanted their confessions soon after their return under threat of a court-martial.
The confessors disclosed where the biological weapons were manufactured (Terre Haute, Indiana), the command structure of the germ warfare (Unit 406 based in Japan), types of germs (the types developed by the Japanese germ warfare units) and details on the bombing tactics.
Who ordered the US Germ Warfare in Korea?:
In October 1951, in the aftermath of Gen. MacArthur's ill-conceived "Home by Christmas" campaign that resulted in loss of over 60,000 UN troops in North Korea, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff hand-delivered a secret order to Gen. Ridgeway to start germ warfare on a limited experimental scale in Korea. Another JCS directive (JCS #1837/29) issued on February 25, 1952 authorized "a larger scale" field tests. The American flyers were given brief lectures on germ warfare. They were told that germ warfare was a top secret and that disclosing it to anyone would lead to a court-martial and if convicted, death as the likely penalty.
Who ran the US Germ Warfare in Korea and China?:
A special op center "Joint Operations Center" kept a close watch on germ bombing missions. Mission reports were sent to the JOC through a separate secret communication channel. The 1st Marine Air Wing under the direction of the Fifth Air Force carried out the secret missions. Col. Mahurin, a CIA officer, received a basic training in germ warfare at the Fort Derrick (The US Germ Warfare HQ) and directed 'special' missions in Korea.
The US CIA placed agents in North Korea and China and collected information on the effectiveness of the germ warfare bombings raids conducted by the Marine warplanes. Other military intelligence units gathered amassed vast amount of intelligence on epidemics and general health of the Communist armies and civilians. --------
The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea by Stephen Endicott and Edward Hagerman -------------
Related Webs:
Unmasking an old lie: A Korean War charge is exposed as a hoax (US News)
Cold War International History Project
Rolicka M. - Forgotten episode of the 'forgotten war.'
Medic: The Autobiography of Gen. Crawford F. Sams
A History Of Bio-Chemical Weapons: By Zoltan Grossman
US Army History: Biowar
Biological Warfare: A Historical Perspective
Biological Warfare and the Implications of Biotechnology
Biological Weapons FAQ
A Preliminary Review of Studies of Japanese Biological Warfare Unit 731 in
the United States - Tien-wei Wu
The Code of Silence
China Finds Evidence Of Japanese Germ Warfare During WWII
THE MUKDEN FILES: American POWs claim germ warfare coverup by U.S.
Unit 731: Testimony by Hal Gold
The Other Holocaust
A Half Century Of Denial
Factories of Death : Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American
Biowar Worldwide
Japan's Germ Warfare and the Korean War - Lee Wha Rang, July 27, 1996