- Suppose, this past weekend, you sent
an email to a friend overseas. There's a reasonable possibility your communication
was intercepted by a global surveillance system--especially if you happened
to discuss last week's bombings in East Africa.
- Or suppose you're stuck in traffic and
in your road rage you whip out a cell phone and angrily call your congressman's
office in Washington. There's a chance the government is listening in on
that conversation, too (but only for the purposes of "training"
- Or suppose you're on a foreign trip--vacation,
business, relief work--and you send off a fax to some folks that Washington
doesn't view too keenly. Your message could be taken down and analyzed
by the very same system.
- That system is called ECHELON and it
is controlled by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA). In America, it
is the Intelligence Network That Dare Not Be Acknowledged. Questions about
it at Defense Department briefings are deftly deflected. Requests for information
about it under the Freedom of Information Act linger in bureaucratic limbo.
Researchers who mention possible uses of it in the presence of intelligence
officials are castigated. Members of Congress--theoretically, the people's
representatives who provide oversight of the intelligence community--betray
no interest in helping anyone find out anything about it. Media outlets
(save the award-winning but low-circulation Covert Action Quarterly) ignore
it. In the official view of the U.S. Government, it doesn't exist.
- But according to current and former intelligence
officials, espionage scholars, Australian and British investigative reporters,
and a dogged New Zealand researcher, it is all too real. Indeed, a soon-to-be
finalized European Parliament report on ECHELON has created quite a stir
on the other side of the Atlantic. The report's revelations are so serious
that it strongly recommends an intensive investigation of NSA operations.
- The facts drawn out by these sources
reveal ECHELON as a powerful electronic net--a net that snags from the
millions of phone, fax, and modem signals traversing the globe at any moment
selected communications of interest to a five-nation intelligence alliance.
Once intercepted (based on the use of key words in exchanges), those communiqués
are sent in real time to a central computer system run by the NSA; round-the-clock
shifts of American, British, Australian, Canadian, and New Zealand analysts
pour over them in search of . . . what?
- Originally a Cold War tool aimed at the
Soviets, ECHELON has been redirected at civilian targetsworldwide. In fact,
as the European Parliament report noted, political advocacy groups like
Amnesty International and Greenpeace were amongst ECHELON's targets. The
system's awesome potential (and potential for abuse) has spurred some traditional
watchdogs to delve deep in search of its secrets, and even prompted some
of its minders within the intelligence community to come forward. "In
some ways," says Reg Whittaker, a professor and intelligence scholar
at Canada's York University, "it's probably the most useful means
of getting at the Cold War intelligence-sharing relationship that still
- While the Central Intelligence Agency--responsible
for covert operations and human-gathered intelligence, or HUMINT--is the
spy agency most people think of, the NSA is, in many respects, the more
powerful and important of the U.S. intelligence organizations. Though its
most egregious excesses of 20 years ago are believed to have been curbed,
in addition to monitoring all foreign communications, it still has the
legal authority to intercept any communication that begins or ends in the
U.S., as well as use American citizens' private communications as fodder
for trainee spies. Charged with the gathering of signals intelligence,
or SIGINT--which encompasses all electronic communications transmissions--the
NSA is larger, better funded, and infinitely more secretive than the CIA.
Indeed, the key document that articulates its international role has never
seen the light of day.
- That document, known as the UKUSA Agreement,
forged an alliance in 1948 among five countries--the U.S., Britain, Australia,
Canada, and New Zealand--to geographically divvy up SIGINT-gathering responsibilities,
with the U.S. as director and main underwriter. Like the NSA--hardly known
until the Pike and Church congressional investigations of the '70s--the
other four countries' SIGINT agencies remain largely unknown and practically
free of public oversight. While other member nations conduct their own
operations, there has "never been any misunderstanding that we're
NSA subsidiaries," according to Mike Frost, an ex-officer in Canada's
SIGINT service, the Communications Security Establishment (CSE). Moreover,
all the signatory countries have NSA listening posts within their borders
that operate with little or no input from the local agency.
- Like nature, however, journalism abhors
a vacuum, and the dearth of easily accessible data has inspired a cadre
of researchers around the world to monitor the SIGINT community as zealously
as possible. It is not, says David Banisar of the Electronic Privacy Information
Center (EPIC), an easy task. Getting raw data is difficult enough. Figuring
out what it means even more so, he says, thanks in part to the otherwise
conservative NSA's very liberal use of code names--many of which regularly
change--for everything from devices to operations. One that appears to
have remained constant, however, is ECHELON.
- In 1988, Margaret Newsham, a contract
employee from Lockheed posted at Menwith Hill, the NSA's enormous listening
post in Yorkshire, England, filed a whistleblower suit against Lockheed,
charging the company with waste and mismanagement (the case is currently
being appealed after an initial dismissal). At the same time, Newsham told
Congressional investigators that she had knowledge of illegal eavesdropping
on American citizens by NSA personnel. While a committee began investigating,
it never released a report. Nonetheless, British investigative reporter
Duncan Campbell managed to get hold of some of the committee's findings,
including a slew of Menwith Hill operations. Among them was a project described
as the latest installment of a system code named ECHELON that would enable
the five SIGINT agencies "to monitor and analyze civilian communications
into the 21st century."
- To SIGINT watchers, the concept wasn't
unfamiliar. In the early '80s, while working on his celebrated study of
the NSA, The Puzzle Palace, James Bamford discovered that the agency was
developing a system called PLATFORM, which would integrate at least 52
separate SIGINT agency computer systems into one central network run out
of Fort Meade, Maryland. Then in 1991, an anonymous British SIGINT officer
told the TV media about an ongoing operation that intercepted civilian
telexes and ran them through computers loaded with a program called "the
Dictionary"--a description that jibed with both Bamford and Campbell's
- In 1996, however, intelligence watchdogs
and scholars got an avalanche of answers about ECHELON, upon the publication
of Secret Power: New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network,written
by Nicky Hager. A New Zealand activist turned investigative author, Hager
spent 12 years digging into the ties between his country's SIGINT agency,
the Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB), and the NSA. Utilizing
leaked material and scores of interviews with GCSB officers, Hager not
only presented a revealing look at the previously unknown machinations
of the GCSB (even New Zealand's Prime Minister was kept in the dark about
its full scope) but also produced a highly detailed description of ECHELON.
- According to Hager's information--which
leading SIGINT scholar and National Security Archive analyst Jeffrey Richelson
calls "excellent"--ECHELON functions as a real-time intercept
and processing operation geared toward civilian communications. Its first
component targets international phone company telecommunications satellites
(or Intelsats) from a series of five ground intercept stations located
at Yakima, Washington; Sugar Grove, West Virginia; Morwenstow in Cornwall,
England; Waihopai, New Zealand; and Geraldton, Australia.
- The next component targets other civilian
communications satellites, from a similar array of bases, while the final
group of facilities intercept international communications as they're relayed
from undersea cables to microwave transmitters. According to Hager's sources,
each country devises categories of intercept interest. Then a list of key
words or phrases (anything from personal, business, and organization names
to e-mail addresses to phone and fax numbers) is devised for each category.
The categories and keywords are entered by each country into its "Dictionary"
computer, which, after recognizing keywords, intercepts full transmissions,
and sends them to the terminals of analysts in each of the UKUSA countries.
- To the layperson, ECHELON may sound like
something out of the X-Files. But the National Security Archives's Richelson
and others maintain that not only is this not the stuff of science fiction,
but is, in some respects, old hat. More than 20 years ago, then CIA director
William Colby matter-of-factly told congressional investigators that the
NSA monitored every overseas call made from the United States. Two years
ago, British Telecom accidentally disclosed in a court case that it had
provided the Menwith Hill station with equipment potentially allowing it
access to hundreds of thousands of European calls a day. "Let me put
it this way," says a former NSA officer. "Consider that anyone
can type a keyword into a Net search engine and get back tens of thousands
of hits in a few seconds." A pause. "Assume that people working
on the outer edges have capabilities far in excess of what you do."
- Since earlier this year, ECHELON has
caused something of a panic in Europe, following the disclosure of an official
European Parliament report entitled "In Appraisal of Technologies
of Political Control." While the report did draw needed attention
to ECHELON, it--and subsequent European press coverage--says Richelson,
"built ECHELON up into some super-elaborate system that can listen
in on everyone at any time, which goes beyond what Nicky Hager wrote."
Richelson, along with other SIGINT experts, emphasizes that, despite ECHELON's
apparent considerable capabilities, it isn't omniscient.
- EPIC's David Banisar points out that
despite the high volume of communications signals relayed by satellite
and microwave, a great many fiber-optic communications--both local and
domestic long distance--can't be intercepted without a direct wiretap.
And, adds Canadian ex-spook Mike Frost, there's a real problem sorting
and reading all the data; while ECHELON can potentially intercept millions
of communications, there simply aren't enough analysts to sort through
everything. "Personally, I'm not losing any sleep over this,"
says Richelson, "because most of the stuff probably sits stored and
unused at [NSA headquarters in] Fort Meade."
- Richelson's position is echoed by some
in the intelligence business ("Sure, there's potential for abuse,"
says one insider, "but who would you rather have this--us or Saddam
Hussein?"). But others don't take such a benign view. "ECHELON
has a huge potential for violating privacy and for abuses of democracy,"
says Hager. "Because it's so powerful and its operations are so secret
that there are no real constraints on agencies using it against any target
the government chooses. The excessive secrecy built up in the Cold War
removes any threat of accountability."
- The only time the public gets anything
resembling oversight, Hager contends, is when intelligence officials have
a crisis of conscience, as several British spooks did in 1992. In a statement
to the London Observer, the spies said they felt they could "no longer
remain silent regarding that which we regard to be gross malpractice and
negligence within the establishment we operate"--the establishment
in question being the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), Britain's
version of the NSA. The operatives said that an intercept system based
on keyword recognition (sound familiar?) was routinely targeting the communications
of Amnesty International and Christian Aid.
- Adds Hager, "The use of intelligence
services in these cases had nothing to do with national security, but everything
to do with keeping tabs on critics. The British government frequently finds
itself in political conflict with Amnesty over countries it is supplying
arms to or governments with bad human rights records. ECHELON provides
the government with a way to gain advantage over Amnesty by eavesdropping
on their operations."
- Hager and others also argue that potential
for abuse lies in the hierarchical and reciprocal nature of the UKUSA alliance.
According to data gathered by congressional committees in the '70s, and
accounts of former SIGINT officers like Frost, UKUSA partners have, from
time to time, used each other to circumvent prohibitions on spying on their
own citizens. Frost, for example, directed Canadian eavesdropping operations
against both Americans and Britons--at the request of both countries' intelligence
services, to whom the surveillance data was subsequently passed.
- And British Members of Parliament have
raised concerns for years about the lack of oversight at the NSA's Menwith
Hill facility--a base on British soil with access to British communications
yet run by the NSA, which works closely with the GCHQ. "Given that
both the U.S. and Britain turn their electronic spying systems against
many other friendly and allied nations," says Hager, "the British
would be naive not to assume it is happening to them."
- David Banisar, the electronic privacy
advocate, says that apparently just asking about ECHELON, or mentioning
anything like it, is considered unreasonable. Since earlier this year,
Banisar has been trying to get information on ECHELON from the NSA under
the Freedom of Information Act. "They're not exactly forthcoming,"
he says, explaining that he only recently got a response in which he was
in effect told the European Parliament report "didn't provide enough
information" for the NSA to locate the requested information. However,
Wayne Madsen, co-author with Bamford of the most recent edition of The
Puzzle Palace, was more directly discouraged from investigating ECHELON's
possibly dubious applications, as the following story makes clear.
- On April 21, 1996, Chechnyen rebel leader
Dzokhar Dudayev was killed when a Russian fighter fired two missiles into
his headquarters. At the time of the attack, Dudayev had been talking on
his cellular phone to Russian officials in Moscow about possible peace
negotiations. According to electronics experts, getting a lock on Dudayev's
cell phone signal would not have been difficult, but as Martin Streetly,
editor of Jane's Radar and Electronic Warfare Systems, noted at the time,
the Russian military was so under-equipped and poorly maintained, it was
doubtful a radar intercept plane could have honed in on the signal without
- Speaking at a conference on Information
Warfare a month later, Madsen, one of the world's leading SIGINT and computer
security experts, explained that it was both politically and technically
possible that the NSA helped the Russians kill Dudayev. Noting the West's
interest in preserving the Yeltsin presidency and in ensuring the safety
of an oil consortium's pipeline running through Chechnya, Madsen explained
which NSA satellites could have been used to intercept Dudayev's call and
directionally locate its signal.
- This wasn't exactly a stunning revelation:
Not only had reports recently been released in Australia and Switzerland
about police tracking suspects by their cell phone signatures, but Reuters
and Agence France-Press had written about the Dudayev scenario as technically
plausible. Still, after his talk, Madsen was approached by an Air Force
officer assigned to the NSA, who tore into him. "Don't you realize
that we have people on the ground over there?" Madsen recalled the
officer seething. "You're talking about things that could put them
in harm's way." Asks Madsen, "If this was how Dudayev died, do
you think it's unreasonable the American people know about the technical
aspects behind this kind of diplomacy?"
- Nicky Hager says that the New Zealand
intelligence officers who talked to him did so out of a growing disillusionment
with the importance to New Zealand of access to ECHELON information. In
some cases, they said, they had been so busy listening in on targets of
interest to other countries, they altogether missed opportunities to gather
intelligence in New Zealand's national interest. Ross Coulthart, an investigative
reporter with Australia's Nine Network, says intelligence sources of his
have reported similar feelings. "In the UKUSA intelligence community,
there appear, roughly, to be two camps: those who believe that it's best
to fall in line behind the U.S., because the U.S. has acted as protector
and funder and gives us resources and limited participation in a system
we couldn't support ourselves, and those who think the whole thing is somewhat
overrated and sometimes contrary to national interests."
- In 1995, for example, Australian intelligence
officials leaked a story to the Australian Broadcasting Company that was,
at first blush, damaging to themselves: Australian intelligence had bugged
the Chinese Embassy in Canberra. However, the Australians had no access
to the actual transmissions; they had merely planted the bugs at the behest
of the NSA, which was getting the raw feed. "Given that both Australian
and American companies were bidding for Chinese wheat contracts at the
time," says Coulthart, "it didn't seem like Australia was getting
anything out of this arrangement, so they put the story out there."
- Indeed, says York University's Whittaker,
"there's a really important degree of [economic] tension that wasn't
there during the Cold War. On the other hand, most of the threats perceived
as common and borderless--terrorism, nuclear proliferation, weapons of
mass destruction, and global crime--inspire more cooperation between the
UKUSA partners." Hager thinks such cooperation is certainly merited,
but what ECHELON to some extent reflects, he believes, is the continued
erosion of civil liberties and the notion of sovereignty in the name of
security. "Some people I interviewed told me repeatedly, 'It's a good
thing for us to be part of this strong alliance,' " he says. "What
it amounts to, in the end, is an argument for being a cog in a big intelligence
- This document last modified Tuesday,
August 11, 1998, 12:56 PM EDT.