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Here We Go, Measles from Africa To The US,
 The Caribbean, Canada And Europe

From Patricia Doyle PhD

Hello Jeff - Here we go again, Measles travels from Africa and hits the US, Caribbean, Canada and Europe.  Cases are also rising in Australia and New Zealand.  Keep flooding the west with Africans and the West becomes a Third World cauldron of diseases.



 A ProMED-mail post
 ProMED-mail is a program of the
 International Society for Infectious Diseases

 In this update:
 [1] South Africa

 USA and Caribbean
 [2] Texas, Ellis County
 [3] Caribbean (Antigua) ex UK

 [4] Nova Scotia, Halifax

 [5] Greece
 [6] United Kingdom
 [7] Italy

 [1] South Africa (Cape Town)
 Date: Thu 25 Jan 2018
 From: Prof Sipho Dlamini < [edited]
 Groote Schuur Hospital, Infectious Diseases Unit, Cape Town, South Africa

 Measles was confirmed in a 29-year-old Somali migrant worker in South Africa, who had spent the last 9 months visiting family in Djibouti city, Djibouti. He presented to hospital in Cape Town 12 days after returning by direct air travel with a 7 hour airport transfer in Nairobi, with a 6 day history of fever, conjunctivitis, dry cough, vomiting and diarrhoea, followed on day 7 by a red maculopapular facial rash with subsequent spread to his upper extremities and abdomen. There was no other travel history, nor contact with any persons with known measles or a febrile illness and rash. He received pre-travel health information through his travel company and was vaccinated against Yellow Fever. There is no formal documentation of his measles vaccination status, but his brother indicated that he underwent all routine childhood vaccinations in Somalia.

 Measles was confirmed on urine PCR on [Thu 18 Jan 2018] at the Groote Schuur Hospital Virology Laboratory, National Health Laboratory Service. The patient was discharged in a stable condition for isolation at home, to be followed up by the Groote Schuur Hospital Infectious Diseases Clinic, a member of the Geosentinel Travel Surveillance Network. A serum sample for measles IgM will be tested for surveillance purposes. The Groote Schuur Hospital Infection Prevention team is aiding the Western Cape Provincial Department of Health's Communicable Disease Control Unit to optimise infection control, and begin contact tracing.

 Prof Sipho Dlamini
 Groote Schuur Hospital,
 Infectious Diseases Unit,
 Cape Town,
 South Africa

 [He should not have been able to be infected with measles had he actually received the full vaccination schedule as a child. Either he did not receive the recommended 2 doses, or he is one of the few who are not not fully protected. According to WHO and the CDC, after one dose, 85 percent of children 9 months of age and 95 percent over 12 months of age are immune. Nearly all of those who do not develop immunity after a single dose develop it after a 2nd dose.

 A Healthmap/ProMED of South Africa can be found at - Mod.LK]

 USA and Caribbean
 [2] Texas, Ellis County
 Date: Tue 23 Jan 2018 5:35 PM
 Source: WFAA [edited]

 State Health officials are reporting 6 measles cases in Ellis County, Texas. People involved in the outbreak have connections to Waxahachie and Midlothian.

 The Texas Department of State Health Services reported that on [Tue 9 Jan 2018] a customer sick with measles attended a movie at the ShowBiz Cinemas on Broadhead Road. State health officials said none of them are connected to the movie theater.

 People who went to the theater on that day should continue to monitor themselves for measles symptoms through [Tue 30 Jan 2018].

 Because measles is highly contagious, it's possible more cases may occur, the Texas Department of State Health Services said. It takes about 14 days for symptoms to show up, but it can sometimes take up to 3 weeks.

 Communicated by:
 ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts

 [A Healthmap/ProMED of United States can be found at of Texas, United States at]

 [3] Caribbean (Antigua) ex UK
 Date: Thu 25 Jan 2018
 Source: Nation News [edited]

 The Ministry of Health is investigating a suspected case of measles that was imported into the country by a visitor from the United Kingdom.

 According to chief medical officer Dr Rhonda Sealey-Thomas, the suspected case was reported by the doctor who treated the patient.

 Sealey-Thomas said the patient with the suspected case of measles has been isolated and those who travelled with her will be quarantined and monitored to see whether or not they are affected.

 The Health Ministry will also ensure that they are properly vaccinated as the ministry awaits laboratory confirmation of the disease.

 Meanwhile, the ministry has issued an appeal to the public to ensure that they are adequately immunised against measles, mumps and rubella with the MMR vaccine.

 In 2016, the Region of the Americas, including Antigua and Barbuda was certified as being free of measles.

 However, Sealey-Thomas says should ensure that the country retains its measles-free status by ensuring that they are properly vaccinated.

 "We need parents to check to see that your children have the correct dosage of the MMR, the measles, mumps rubella vaccine. Take your card and your child to the nearest health centre so the nurses there can check and ensure that your child is properly vaccinated or if they need another dosage," Sealey-Thomas said in an advisory.

 Adults are also being encouraged to check with their physician if they are unsure about their vaccination status.

 Measles is a highly contagious disease which is characterised by high fever, cough, runny nose and a red rash which starts on the face and spreads to the body. It is caused by a virus and is spread through coughing and sneezing.

 There is no specific treatment, but the measles vaccine that is administered as part of a country's vaccination programme provides lifelong protection against the disease.

 Those who are not vaccinated face a higher risk of getting the viral infection.

 Communicated by:
 ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts

 [A Healthmap/ProMED of Antigua and Barbuda can be found at]

 [4] Nova Scotia, Halifax
 Date: Fri 26 Jan 2018
 Source: Halifax Today [edited]

 Nova Scotia Health Authority's Public Health team is investigating a case of measles in Halifax/Dartmouth area.

 It has not yet been determined how the individual contracted measles. As part of the routine investigation and follow up of a measles case, Public Health is directly contacting people who may have been exposed, including at workplaces and where someone socializes. This will allow us to ensure up to date immunization and identify further cases as quickly as possible.

 The risk to the general public is low; most people are protected from measles infection by being vaccinated.

 Vaccination information
 Nova Scotia residents born in or after 1970 are eligible to receive 2 doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine at no cost through the publicly-funded immunization program. People who have not had 2 doses of MMR vaccine should arrange immunization through their primary care provider as per the NS Immunization Schedule.

 Symptoms of measles include: fever, cough, runny nose; red eyes; a red blotchy rash on the face, which spreads down the body; sleepiness; irritability (feeling cranky or in a bad mood); small white spots may also show up inside the mouth and throat.

 Measles is a viral illness and most people fully recover within 2 to 3 weeks. However, measles can have serious complications, which are more likely in infants, pregnant women and those with weakened immune systems.

 There were 2 measles outbreaks in Nova Scotia in 2017, with a total of 30 cases.

 [A Healthmap/ProMED of Nova Scotia Province, Canada can be found at and Canada at]

 [5] Greece
 Date: Wed 24 Jan 2018 14:30
 Source: Ekathimerini [edited]

 A measles outbreak which began last May [2017] is showing no sign of abating, with Greece's union of public hospital workers (POEDIN) on [Tue 23 Jan 2018] announcing 3 new cases, bringing the total number recorded close to 1200.

 By last [Thu 18 Jan 2018], the Center for Disease Prevention and Control (KEELPNO) had recorded 1185 cases of measles. The 3 new cases were among staff at hospitals in the Peloponnese.

 According to KEELPNO, health workers are among those at highest risk of infection, with the 25--44 age group and children, particularly members of the Roma community, said to be the most vulnerable.

 A total of 7 in 10 of the cases relate to Roma individuals, Theano Georgakopoulou of KEELPNO told Kathimerini.

 Authorities warn that, in addition to children, people born after 1970 should be vaccinated if they have not had measles in the past.

 Communicated by:
 ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts

 [The Roma community in Europe is a subgroup of the Romani people, whose origins are in northern India . Measles outbreaks, including severe cases, have been reported in the European Roma community. Roma people in Europe experience some of the worst health conditions in the industrialized world: they live in overcrowded conditions and have limited access to prevention programs and to healthcare services. In such populations, deficiency of vitamins such as A , affects the severity of illness and the rate of deaths associated with measles, and it is known to induce severe measles related complications in children, delaying recovery and promoting xerophthalmia, corneal ulcer, and blindness. Acute measles precipitates vitamin A deficiency by depleting vitamin A stores and increasing its utilization, leading to more severe ocular injury. Vitamin A supplementation given to children with measles has been associated with better outcomes. (Excerpted and edited from Melenotte C, Brouqui P, Botelho-Nevers E. Severe Measles, Vitamin A Deficiency, and the Roma Community in Europe. Emerg Infec Dis.18(9):1537-39. September 2012.

 A Healthmap/ProMED of Greece can be found at - Mod.LK]

 [6] United Kingdom
 Date: Fri 26 Jan 2018 08:46 EST
 Source: Daily Mail [edited]

 The measles outbreak that has rocked 5 regions of England has now infected 140 people, new figures reveal.

 Some 47 confirmed cases of the life-threatening infection have been reported in the West Midlands. And 35 people have now been struck down with measles in West Yorkshire, 29 in Cheshire and Liverpool, 22 in Surrey and 7 in Greater Manchester.

 The figures, released by Public Health England [PHE], have prompted officials to urge parents to ensure their kids are vaccinated against it.

 Dr Mary Ramsay, head of immunisation at PHE, believes the outbreak could be down to travellers coming back to the country from Europe.

 Italy, Germany and Romania are all currently being rocked by epidemics of measles, which is a highly contagious viral infection.

 She added that in order to avoid an epidemic in the UK, parents should vaccinate their children against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR).

 However, measles vaccination rates in children have been dropping consistently in recent years - and are now below recommended levels.

 [Byline: Stephen Matthews]

 Communicated by:
 ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts

 [A Healthmap/ProMED of United Kingdom can be found at]

 [7] Italy
 Date: Thu 25 Jan 2018 12:20 PM
 Source: LA Times [edited]

 Italy's health ministry says 4991 cases of measles were reported last year [2017], a nearly 6-fold increase over 2016 that has been blamed in part on a highly politicized debate over vaccines.

 Italy's measles epidemic, which killed 4 people last year [2017], already has caught the attention of the World Health Organization and other global health authorities.

 But the toll, with 2017 data released [Thu 25 Jan 2018], has only fueled debate after the Democratic Party pushed through legislation last year [2017] making 10 vaccines obligatory.

 The right-wing League and the populist Five-Star Movement, which are seeking to wrest power from the Democrats in [Sun 4 Mar 2018] elections, have drawn scorn for comments opposing obligatory vaccinations or questioning their effectiveness.

 Italy reported 2211 measles cases in 2013, 1674 in 2014, 251 in 2015 and 844 in 2016.

 Communicated by:
 ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts

 [A Healthmap/ProMED of Italy can be found at - Mod.LK]

 See Also
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