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The Bogus Science (BS)
Of 'Explosive SuperThermite'
Versus The Facts Of A
'Deflagration Compound'

By Ed Ward, MD
A response to the continued promotion of 'SuperThermite' as an 'explosive' or high pressure wave generator via the Tonti testimony.

The Facts of 'Explosives'
"Explosives are classified as low or high according to the detonating velocity or speed at which this change takes place and other pertinent characteristics such as their shattering effect. An arbitrary figure of 3300 fps is used to distinguish between burning/ deflagration (low explosive) and detonation (high explosive).

The velocity of instantaneous combustion has been measured for most explosives and is referred to as the detonation velocity of the explosive. Detonation velocities of high explosives range from approximately 3,300 feet per second (fps) to over 29,900 fps. To bring this speed down to our terms - If we took a five-mile length of garden hose and filled it in with a high explosive and then detonated one end of the hose, it would only take one second for the chemical reaction to reach the other end.

In a detonation, the chemical reaction moves through the explosive material at a velocity greater than that of sound through the same material. The characteristic of this chemical reaction is that it is initiated by and, in turn, supports a supersonic shock wave proceeding through the explosive."

In a deflagration, the chemical reaction moves rapidly through the explosive material and releases heat or flames vigorously. The reaction moves too slowly to produce shock waves."
There are two types of Explosives Low Explosives and High Explosives. Low explosives are said to burn or deflagrate rather than to detonate or explode. The burning gives off a gas which, when properly confined, will cause an explosion. Most low explosives are mechanical mixtures or a mechanical blending of the individual ingredients making up the low explosives.

High Explosives do not require confinement to shatter and destroy. It must generally be initiated by a shock wave of considerable force. This is usually provided by a detonator or blasting cap.

The varying velocities of explosives and configuration have a direct relationship to the type of work they can perform. The difference in velocities determines the type of power exerted by high or low explosives. Low explosives have pushing or heaving power and high explosives have shattering power(Brisance)." http://www.securitydriver.com/aic/stories/article-114.html

"Professor Jones does not stop there, however, his most important piece of evidence comes from samples of the molten steel from the twin towers. He works from a hypothesis that the bright yellow explosions and molten metal seen in video footage of the attacks on the WTC appear to be that of Thermite, which is widely used in controlled demolition. (Note use of the term 'explosions' for what is clearly seen as 'burning' or 'deflagration'.)
Thermate, used to cut rapidly through steel beams in controlled demolition." http://infowars.com/articles/sept11/la_con_infowars_team_thought.htm (similar quote) http://www.physics.byu.edu/research/energy/htm7.html

Thermate, Thermite, SuperThermite, etc, are cutting agents Not High Pressure Wave Explosives. An explosive quality is counterproductive to a cutting agent. Cutting agents must be used in conjuction with explosives. The cutting agents cut and the explosives move the cut product away from their support structures. This is standard demolition. If contact cutting agents produced a generalized 'high pressure wave', ie typical explosion', the pressure wave would blow the cuttiing agent away from the steel it is supposed to cut as well as any other cutting agents in the immediate vicinity. That is why the process of demolition requires cutting agents to cut the steel, then explosives to move the cut pieces away from their support.

A low explosive is usually a mixture of a combustible substance and an oxidant that decomposes rapidly (deflagration); unlike most high explosives, which are compounds.
Under normal conditions, low explosives undergo deflagration at rates that vary from a few centimeters per second to approximately 400 metres per second. However, it is possible for them to deflagrate very quickly, producing an effect similar to a detonation, but not an actual detonation; This usually occurs when ignited in a confined space. Low explosives are normally employed as propellants. Included in this group are gun powders and pyrotechnics such as flares and illumination devices.

High explosives are normally employed in mining, demolition, and military warheads. They undergo detonation at rates of 1,000 to 9,000 meters per second. High explosives are conventionally subdivided into two classes differentiated by sensitivity: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explosive

Government Classification of an Explosive:
The explosives listed in 18 V.S.C. §841(d) represent speeds from several millimeters per second to tens of kilometers per second. Neither of these materials are considered explosives, regardless of burn rate, because they do not contain a fuel and an oxidizer http://www.tripoli.org/documents/batfe/20061013atfapcp.pdf

More information on Explosives vs 'SuperThermite':

Other so-called insensitive explosives can also be used safely, including compositions of 80-90% RDX or HMX, the explosive powders or crystals being thoroughly coated with plasticized polymer (20%-10%) and wherein the HMX is usually in a bimodal crystal form (see "Explosives and Propellants (Explosives)"; Vol. 10, 4th Ed. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, especially pp. 55-56). Primasheet (Ensign-Bickford Co.) has a burn rate of 23000 ft. per second, i.e. 7010 meters per second; the aforementioned HMX has a burn rate of 8800 meters per second; and PETN has a burn rate of 8260 meters per second. http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6200615-description.html

For example, it has been proven that because of their large surface area, the nanopowders can increase the burn rate in some types of propellants 1,3,8-10 There were also significant developments made in the "super thermite" area with mixes of nanometric aluminum and metal oxides (11). Those ompounds are said to react at rates approaching (and under particular conditions even equivalent to) those of high explosives (Investigators note: While the report does not relate the particular conditions, other articles indicate that confinement is one of the conditions.)

When optimized, the burn-rate of these materials (~400 m/s) exceeds that of conventional thermites (based on micron-sized powders), but is less than that of conventional explosives. Similar burn-rates around 350 m/s are measured for these "super-thermites"

An energetic material has been routinely manufactured from nano-metric powders of aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3). When optimized, the burn-rate of these materials (~400 m/s) exceeds that of conventional thermites (based on micron-sized powders), but is less than that of conventional explosives. Similar burn-rates around 350 m/s are measured for these "super-thermites"...

0114] Low Order Explosion--Low explosives change into gases by burning or combustion. These are characterized by deflagration (burning rapidly without generating a high pressure wave) and a lower reaction rate than high explosives. The overall effect ranges from rapid combustion to a low order detonation (generally less than 2,000 meters per second). Since they burn through deflagration rather than a detonation wave, they are usually a mixture, and are initiated by heat and require confinement to create an explosion. Gun powder (black powder) is the only common example.

[0115] Deflagration--The chemical decomposition (burning) of a material in which the reaction front advances into the reacted material at less than sonic velocity. Deflagration can be a very rapid combustion which, under confinement, can result in an explosion, although generally it implies the burning of a substance with self-contained oxygen. The reaction zone advances into the unreacted material at less than the velocity of sound in the material. In this case, heat is transferred from the reacted to the unreacted material by conduction and convection. The burning rate for a deflagration is usually less than 2,000 meters/second. [0117] Detonation--Also called an initiation sequence or a firing train, this is the sequence of events which cascade from relatively low levels of energy to cause a chain reaction to initiate the final explosive material or main charge. They can be either low or high explosive trains. It is a chemical reaction that moves through an explosive material at a velocity greater than the speed of sound in the material. A detonation is a chemical reaction given by an explosive substance in which a shock wave is formed. High temperature and pressure gradients are generated in the wave front, so that the chemical reaction is initiated instantaneously. Detonation velocities lie in the approximate range of 1,400 to 9,000 m/s or 5,000 to 30,000 ft/s.

[0118] High Order Explosion--High explosives are capable of detonating and are used in military ordinance, blasting and mining, etc. These have a very high rate of reaction, high-pressure development, and the presence of a detonation wave that moves faster than the speed of sound (1,400 to 9,000 meters per second). Without confinement, they are compounds that are initiated by shock or heat and have high brisance (the shattering effect of an explosion). Examples include primary explosives such as nitroglycerin that can detonate with little stimulus and secondary explosives such as dynamite (trinitrotoluene, TNT) that require a strong shock (from a detonator such as a blasting cap). http://www.freepatentsonline.com/20050242093.html

A chemical explosive is a compound or a mixture of compounds which, when subjected to heat, impact, friction, or shock, undergoes very rapid, self-propagating, heat- producing decomposition. This decomposition produces gases that exert tremendous pressures as they expand at the high temperature of the reaction. The work done by an explosive depends primarily on the amount of heat given off during the explosion. The term detonation indicates that the reaction is moving through the explosive faster than the speed of sound in the unreacted explosive; whereas, deflagration indicates a slower reaction (rapid burning). A high explosive will detonate; a low explosive will deflagrate. All commercial explosives except black powder are high explosives.

Low-order explosives (LE) create a subsonic explosion [below 3,300 feet per second] and lack HE's over-pressurization wave. Examples of LE include pipe bombs, gunpowder, and most pure petroleum-based bombs such as Molotov cocktails or aircraft improvised as guided missiles.

A High Explosive (HE) is a compound or mixture which, when initiated, is capable of sustaining a detonation shockwave to produce a powerful blast effect. A detonation is the powerful explosive effect caused by the propagation of a high-speed shockwave through a high explosive compound or mixture. During the process of detonation, the high explosive is largely decomposed into hot, rapidly expanding gas.

The most important single property in rating an explosive is detonation velocity, which may be expressed for either confined or un-confined conditions. It is the speed at which the detonation wave travels through the explosive. Since explosives in boreholes are confined to some degree, the confined value is the more significant. Most manufacturers, however, measure the detonation velocity in an unconfined column of explosive 1- i/4 in. in diameter. The detonation velocity of an explosive is dependent on the density, ingredients, particle size, charge diameter, and degree of confinement. Decreased particle size, increased charge diameter, and increased confinement all tend to increase the detonation velocity. Unconfined velocities are generally 70 to 80 percent of confined velocities.

The confined detonation velocity of commercial explosives varies from 4,000 to 25,000 fps. With cartridge explosives the confined velocity is seldom attained. Some explosives and blasting agents are sensitive to diameter changes. As diameter is reduced, the velocity is reduced until at some critical diameter, propagation is no longer assured and misfires are likely.


Low Explosives: Low explosives deflagrate rather than detonate. Their reaction velocities are 2000 to less than 3000 feet per second. Black powder is a good example. pg 27

Low explosives - Their detonation velocity rate is below 3,280 feet per second. (Black powder rate is 1,312 fps) High explosives burn or detonate at a rate of above 3,280 f.p.s. (Dynamite-about 9,000 f.p.s.; RDX - 27,500 f.p.s.)

A Normogram for determination of pressure waves as they relate to 'burn rate'.

Other so-called insensitive explosives can also be used safely, including compositions of 80-90% RDX or HMX, the explosive powders or crystals being thoroughly coated with plasticized polymer (20%-10%) and wherein the HMX is usually in a bimodal crystal form (see "Explosives and Propellants (Explosives)"; Vol. 10, 4th Ed. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, especially pp. 55-56). Primasheet (Ensign-Bickford Co.) has a burn rate of 23000 ft. per second, i.e. 7010 meters per second; the aforementioned HMX has a burn rate of 8800 meters per second; and PETN has a burn rate of 8260 meters per second. http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/6200615-description.html

Dr Ed

TCN&911WIJ - A 1 Year Investigative Anniversary - August 2007
The Only Single All-Inclusive 911 Resolution Theory - Thermate, C4-like explosives, micro Nuclear devices, and 911 Was an Inside Job - TCN&911WIJ http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EdWard-MD/message/216

TCN&911WIJ - Rough Outline of the E-Book - http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EdWard-MD/message/216

TCN&911WIJ is the culmanation of 1 Year (thousands of hours) of intense and thorough investigation into 911 and the WTC information for relevance and validity. There are more 200 referenced links in the TCN911WIJ article series that relate to the investigation with several proofs originating from this investigator.

TCN&911WIJ - Thermate, C4-like explosive, a Nuclear device & 911 Was an Inside Job!
1. Three Massive WTC Craters - See us gov LIDAR proof:

2. Five Acres of WTC Land Brought to Seering Temperatures in a Few Hours by an 'Anaerobic, Chlorine Fueled "Fire" - Impossible by Basic Laws of Physics. See us gov Thermal Images proof: www.thepriceofliberty.org/07/03/05/ward.htm

3. Tritium Levels 55 Times (normal) Background Levels assessed a numerical value of 'traces' and 'of no human concern'. See us gov (DOE report) proof: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EdWard-MD/message/141

4. An Impossible "Fire" (Combustion Process). See Laws of Physics for Fire/Combustion Process and Dr. Cahill's data on 'anaerobic incineration'. http://rense.com/general77/newlaws.htm

All of the above are facts are proven with referenced links of reputable data sources - many are from the government itself and more... Ed Ward, MD - 911 Related Articles - TCN&911WIJ - Chronological:

Bombs in the WTC Buildings Proves Nothing to Racist-Fascist Bigots http://www.thepriceofliberty.org/06/08/21/ward.htm

Micro-Nukes at the WTC http://www.thepriceofliberty.org/06/09/25/ward.htm
Update: Micro-Nukes at the WTC http://www.thepriceofliberty.org/07/03/05/ward.htm
Update: Proves Micro Nukes in the WTC
Verifying the Source of WTC Tritium Levels that Are 55 Times "Background Levels" http://www.rense.com/general76/wtc.htm

Prof. Jones Denies, Ignores, Misrepresents Proven Tritium Levels 55 Times Background Levels http://www.rense.com/general77/levels.htm

Steven Jones Replies To Dr. Ed Ward http://www.rense.com/general77/ward.htm
Prof Jones Gladly Assists Testing Unaffected WTC Items http://www.rense.com/general77/profjh.htm

Vancouver Conference: Drs Deagle and Jones debate Micro Nukes (video) in the WTC http://www.911blogger.com/node/9590

Update: Factual Evaluation of the DOE WTC Tritium Report Data - 911 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EdWard-MD/message/141

Breakdown of the WTC Rain and Firehose Water - 4 Million Gallons of Dilution http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EdWard-MD/message/136

Prof Jones Accepts Validity of Stable Isotopic Testing for Neutron Activation of Fusion Reactions http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EdWard-MD/message/142

Hello!?! 48,000 Curies of Tritium Would Have to Have Burned to Leave the 3.53/2.83 nCi/L of WTC Tritium Residue http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EdWard-MD/message/147

New Laws of Physics Noted in WTC Fires and Ignored - Dr Cahill's Discovery of Anaerobic Chlorine Fueled Combustion http://rense.com/general77/newlaws.htm
The Only Single All-Inclusive 911 Resolution Theory - TCN911WIJ http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EdWard-MD/message/172

9/11 Sicknesses consistent with environmental radiation contamination http://www.agoracosmopolitan.com/home/Frontpage/2007/06/22/01625.html

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America's Only Real Choice: Constitution or Tyranny? http://www.thepriceofliberty.org/04/11/19/ward.htm
SECRETS OF THE CIA - A Disturbing Documentary http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8085945499556832271

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Ed Ward, MD; http://groups.yahoo.com/group/EdWard-MD/ , http://www.thepriceofliberty.org/arc_ward.htm Independent writer/Media Liaison for The Price of Liberty; http://www.thepriceofliberty.org/


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