Fort Dix Six, 911 And Muslims
By Frosty Wooldridge

The "Fort Dix Six" creates a catchy phrase to add to our lexicon. The carnage that group planned proves anything but catchy.
How about a national memory-refresher?
Do you remember Bobby Kennedy being shot to death in 1968? Who is Sirhan Sirhan, the assassin ? Where did he come from ?
How about the U.S. Marine Corps barracks blown up in Beirut in 1983? Does anyone remember the London subway bombings? How about the Madrid, Spain commuter-train bombings?
What about those 1993 World Trade Center detonations? Remember the U.S. embassies bombed in Kenya and Tanzania? How about the 2005 fire-bombing of thousands of cars in the Paris, France riots. How about relentless rapes by immigrants in Sweden and Norway?
Who remembers Muhammed Atta on 9/11/2001? How about Malvo the car trunk sniper?
How about Dutchman Theo Van Gogh's murder for making a 15 minute movie? How about a death sentence on Dutch Somalian Hirsi Ali?
The "information age" caught the average American citizen with his/her proverbial pants down. The new paradigm demands the average voter work hard to stay abreast. Most prove lazy. Our nation's enemies hope apathy continues as our 'new paradigm.' Ignorance breeds insurrection.
The "Fort Dix Six"
Last week, six Middle-Eastern men- two legal aliens, three illegal aliens and one naturalized U.S. citizen from Jordan prepared to kill hundreds of U.S. soldiers at Fort Dix , New Jersey.
What did they all have in common?
Muslim terrorists; they all follow the violent concepts of Islam. Its prime directive pretends "peace" as long as you submit to its precepts. If you don't, Islam followers swear to kill all non-believers. That belief reigns supreme in their Koran.
The formation of the Muslim religion
Born in the 4th century by an illiterate thug named Muhammed, who beheaded his enemies, raped young girls and cut off hands of opponents- Islam adheres to mass illiteracy of its followers, violence, female subjugation, stoning of women, female genital mutilation, "honor" killings and a distinct vengeance on anyone who does not follow its teachings.
While we in the U.S. tend to "blame" the Muslims for their "irrationality"- were you to have a serious chat with a sensible Muslim, you would hear of U.S. atrocities that we tend to forget and put aside. Both sides tend to react against each other.
Every major terrorist act from the 1972 Munich Olympic killings, to Lockerbie, to airport shootings, to unrest and tension in Western societies leads to Muslim immigrants infiltrating host countries.
The Muslim idea is simple; the violent overthrow of the infidels.
Muslims wish to live in free societies, but their "prime directive" advocates change toward Sharia Law, which is theocratic law. In other words, Islam rules over reason.
Holland, France, England and Belgium- now in the clutches of millions of Islamic immigrants unwilling to assimilate- stand in the crosshairs of cultural suicide.
A recent Dutch study reported, "Western European and Muslim ways of life are irreconcilable."
Forty-six percent of Turkish Muslims and 37 percent of Moroccan Muslims, agree strongly that "Western European culture has nothing to contribute to Islam."
"Sadly, mainstream Muslims teach, accept and promote violence," said Tawfik Hamid, a former Muslim terrorist, in his Wall Street Journal piece, "The trouble with Islam ," April 3, 2007. "Women are stoned to death and clitorectomies promoted."
With four million Muslims in America, their silence illustrates a deafening support for their barbaric atrocities. What happens when America injects another 10 million, and then on to 20 million additional Muslims?
Do we not see the cultural suicide of France, Holland, Britain and Belgium as a strong hint of our future?
Huge Muslim population growth in the U.S. -- What are we thinking ?
Look at Detroit, Michigan and the suburb of Dearborn. Muslims transformed that city into their own beachhead in America. They've displaced most American-citizens where they've enclaved. The same slums that descended on Holland grow in Detroit. Given enough time, more and more 'dedicated' Muslim groups- like the three Duka brothers at Fort Dix- will plan more new killing scenarios.
Are you aware that these three illegal aliens came to the U.S. through Brownsville, TX-illegally crossing the U.S. Mexican border more than twenty years ago? Are you aware that the cops in New Jersey chose to look the other way while these aliens ran loose?
For any Americans dumb enough to think Islam maintains any kind of compatibility with our fragile Republic or culture- understand this:
§ The word 'Islam' means "submission."
§ The word Muslim means "one who submits to Allah."
As long as they maintain minority status, they bide their time. For Muslims, Allah supports them through the decades. However, their quest remains resolute. The Koran states:
SURAH (Chapter) 9:5
Those who reject Islam must be killed. If they turn back (from Islam), take them and kill them wherever you find them.
SURAH 4:89
So, when you meet (in fight-jihad in Allah's Cause) those who disbelieve, smite (their) necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly.
SURAH 8:39
Take not the Jews and the Christians as Auliya (friends, protectors, helpers), they are but Auliya of each other. And if any amongst you takes them (as Auliya), then surely he is one of them.
SURAH 5:51
Muslims are commanded to force Christians and Jews to convert to Islam with very strong and direct words.
For those Americans who don't understand what we face as a nation and as a culture, I bring you to the three stages of jihad of Islam:
All countries with Muslim immigrants suffer one of the following stages of jihad.
Weakened Stage
This stage applies to Muslims that must submit to the law of the land they live in. They are a weak, small minority living in a non-Islamic society.
Preparation Stage
In this stage Muslims have become an influential minority. They will now make preparations to accumulate finances, recruit the young to commit to the next stage of jihad that will confront the enemy.
Let not the Unbelievers think that they can get the better (of the godly): they will never frustrate (them). Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies of Allah and your enemies, and others besides whom you may not know, but whom Allah knows.
SURAH 8:59
Jihad Stage
Influence and power marks this state of the Muslim minority. It is now their duty to overturn the governments of the non-Muslim countries into establishing Islamic authority.
Fight and slay the Pagans wherever you find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war).
The six Fort Dix terrorists followed their progression of jihad on America. They followed the tenets of fundamentalist Islam. As their numbers grow in America , more fundamentalist Muslims force their way into every sector, every level and every aspect of American society. Whether by legal means, or violent- they continue on a quest that may take decades.
Muslims, if anything, prove clever. Those now in the U.S. are aware that there is power in numbers (population), and also aware that they are "in competition" with the burgeoning Hispanic-Latino population. Muslims, therefore, reproduce at a rate that is much higher than other groups in the U.S.
Their methods in the U.S. -- use our Constitution to their advantage.
Once they gain outright power, they intend to revert to Sharia Law.
Fundamental to the obligations of every Muslim are the <>Five Pillars of Islam. 
The "Muslim Nation" is working the implementation of Sharia law in France at this moment- where the French have given up on whole city sections in Paris. They're working it in Holland. They tried it in Australia, but officials rebuked them. They will keep pressing until success.
France elected their first non-socialist president in a long time. The nation of France prepares for an internal war- an insurrection.
More than three hundred thousand Muslims immigrate (legally and illegally) into the United States annually- brought to us by an "Open-Borders" Congress that stupidly supports the injection of jihad into this nation.  Most come as naturalized citizens, sponsored by relatives already here. Meanwhile, each Muslim works double-time to increase the Muslim birth-rate in the U.S.
President Bush just signed a bill ("immigration waiver exception") to accept 25,000 Iraqi Sunni refugees into America. I'll bet they're going to make a happy bunch of campers on American soil!
Ignorance in the U.S. electorate is NOT bliss
No one stops them; precious few understand what is going on; no one speaks out. Given enough time, every American faces jihad within his or her own community.
In 1908, President Teddy Roosevelt said,
"The one absolutely certain way of bringing this nation to ruin, of preventing all possibility of its continuing as a nation at all, would be to permit it to become a tangle of squabbling nationalities."
It will prove interesting when the Muslims spreading from East to West across America meet the reconquista La Raza Mexicans spreading west to east. Both groups maintain a mission of conquest. Both sustain a resolve to make America their own.
The Fort Dix Six- signs of things to come.
How can we stop Islam's conquest of America?
Simple: Stop all immigration from Middle Eastern and African countries immediately. Anything less equals national suicide.
TOTAL moratorium on all immigration for ten years 
On the other hand, if you are one of the tens of millions who are oblivious- trusting in the proverbial tooth-fairy- you invite national suicide- right along with the entire Open Borders mafia.
We rush toward an insurrection in the U.S. as the Muslim and Catholic (Hispanic-Latino) powers finalize their plans to annihilate one another. My guess; this mess will explode in 2011, after the U.S. Congress district boundaries are thrown into chaos as a result of the 2010 census.
What we choose not to know can hurt us- in fact, kill us. 
To turn this mess around, we need urgent and radical action
1.       Take total control of our borders, using the U.S.M.C. for seven years, and
2. Construct a world-class PHYSICAL security-fence along our southern border, and
3. Implement a total immigration moratorium, for ten years, and
4. Investigate, prosecute, and punish the criminals who entice and employ foreign-nationals, and
5. Investigate, prosecute, and punish the 630,000 criminal-aliens who have absconded, ignoring lawful Orders to submit to Deportation, and
6. Investigate, prosecute, and punish the criminals who entice and employ foreign-nationals (the root-cause), and
7. Temporarily double the size and staff of the U.S. District Courts, U.S. Immigration Courts, and the U.S Attorney Offices-and build temporary tent-city jails-prisons along our southern border, with built-in courtroom facilities, and
8. Reinvent the DHS, and
9. Put the U.S. Marshal Service and DOJ-FBI in charge of the DHS-ICE function in the interim, and
10.  Carefully and thoroughly (10-finger prints and iris scan) add each illegal alien to our NCIC-iAFIS date base as they voluntarily repatriate, and leave the U.S., and
11.  Put a benevolent dictator in the new post of U.S. Immigration Czar, and
12.  Author a world-class U.S. Immigration Strategic Plan, and
13.  Aggressively (this is a major, gigantic new-paradigm effort) train & educate U.S. children-- " grow-our-own"-- to work the high-tech, manufacturing, and agricultural jobs as we emerge from the current "immigration chaos."
Our nation stands in the cross hairs of cultural and national suicide. If we continue on our current path, we're finished as a nation of laws, as a cohesive people, as a language and as a peaceful civilization.
Monawwar Tayob
Notification Of False Facts In Article
My name is Minowar. 
I am a student at UWC in South Africa.
I am writing to you this email to inform you that an article namely Wooldridge - Ft. Dix Six, 911 And Muslims is false. The article quotes from the quraan and the quotes itself are incorrect. Please kindly note this article creates intentional lies that aims to to spread lies in the hearts and minds of persons who practice other religious faiths. I once again assure you, this article is full of lies. Please remove it if you can as it fuels hatred towards muslims and moves away from the truth.
Thank You

James Bond
First of all, your remarks about prophet Mohammed (PBUH) were racist and show ignorance and hatred toward Islam. It's the West and America who brought destruction and tyranny to the world, NOT MUSLIMS. It's the West and America who erected puppet regimes in the Middle East to rule by an Iron fist - degrading the people and stealing the wealth (OIL). It's the West and America who handed Palestine to the Israelis with flagrant disregard to the Palestinian rights and liberties. It's the West and America who have armed forces in just about every country in the world, thus creating more hatred toward the Americans. It's the West and America who installed Saddam Hussein and recruited and trained Osama Bin Laden to kill and destroy without empathy. It's the West and America who created instability in the world and now Russia and China are taking notes ­ back to the cold war again.
Before you blame Muslims, you should take a deep and sober look at the carnage the West and America inflected upon the Muslim world.
As the saying goes, you reap the fruit of the seeds you plant.
It has been a long time since I read nonsense by this character Frosty Wooldridge. He epitomizes ignorance of the ignorant. His statements about Islam have been out of context due to his ignorance of history; or I should say his ignorance of even today's world situation.
Last night I came across his article "Fort Dix Six, 911 And Muslims". This article was no different than his previous mumbling, however, since he was so blatantly ignorant of what has happened in recent history that I decided to write this short reply.
Before I talk about the events in which Muslims were supposedly involved, his disregard for the Great Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) qualifies him for an appropriate Fetua (religious decree) that Muslim scholars need to enact to deal with this individual. It is imperative to understand that the consequences of one's actions are the result of that individual's blatant disregard for what is sacred to other people. Thus, Muslim scholars worldwide are debating Wooldridge's comments and enacting a Fetua (religious decree) to deal with this ignorant beast. I believe, they should advise him to watch his mouth and let this be the last time he opens it inappropriately. And yes Wooldridge should apologize for his stupid comments.
Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) did not rape any body as Wooldridge falsely stated. He had wives whose parents wanted them to be the Prophet wives so that in the here after their entire family would be blessed for being related to the Prophet Muhammad. By the way, the age of marriage according to Muslim tradition is when man and woman reaches the age of puberty. So when the Prophet consummated his marriage of a younger wife was at the age of puberty because without consummation at the age of puberty living with the opposite sex would constitute a sin. This is not rape you low life-Wooldridge.
Now, to the substance of what he has said about the violence perpetrated by Muslims, his disregard for Prophet Muhammad and Islam.
However, before I refer to the details of what he has said, the following quotations from "educated" and powerful people in this country point to the ignorance ingrained in this society about Islam and Muslims:
"We should invade [Muslim] countries, kill their leaders and convert them to Christianity."
--Columnist Ann Coulter,
National Review Online, Sept. 13, 2001
"Just turn [the sheriff] loose and have him arrest every Muslim that crosses the state line."
--Rep. C. Saxby Chambliss (R-GA), chairman of the House Subcommittee on Terrorism and Homeland security and Senate candidate, to Georgia law officers, November 2001
"Islam is a religion in which God requires you to send your son to die for him. Christianity is a faith where God sent his Son to die for you."
--Attorney General John Ashcroft, interview on Cal Thomas radio, November 2001
"(Islam) is a very evil and wicked religion wicked, violent and not of the same god (as Christianity)."
Rev. Franklin Graham, head of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association, November 2001.
(Challenging Ignorance on Islam: a Ten-Point Primer for Americans by Gary Leupp)
This should be self explanatory for any intelligent individual to realize that when the educated and powerful people become such cattle, it is very hard to expect much from the regular people in the masses. Wooldridge is one of those cattle incapable of realizing what the truth is. Wooldridge made irresponsible comments insulting the Prophet of Islam. Wooldridge is obviously an ignorant about Islam and Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him).
In contrast, Western intellectuals and philosophers worldwide have held Prophet Muhammad in great esteem in the past 200 years. The following quotations of Western intellectuals for the past 200 years put the Prophet of Islam in high esteem.
Thomas Carlyle in 'Heroes and Hero Worship and the Heroic in History,' 1840
"The lies (Western slander) which well-meaning zeal has heaped round this man (Muhammad) are disgraceful to ourselves only."
"A silent great soul, one of that who cannot but be earnest. He was to kindle the world, the world's Maker had ordered so."
A. S. Tritton in 'Islam,' 1951
The picture of the Muslim soldier advancing with a sword in one hand and the Qur'an in the other is quite false.
De Lacy O'Leary in 'Islam at the Crossroads,' London, 1923.
History makes it clear, however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever repeated.
Gibbon in 'The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire' 1823
The good sense of Muhammad despised the pomp of royalty. The Apostle of God submitted to the menial offices of the family; he kindled the fire; swept the floor; milked the ewes; and mended with his own hands his shoes and garments. Disdaining the penance and merit of a hermit, he observed without effort of vanity the abstemious diet of an Arab.
Edward Gibbon and Simon Oakley in 'History of the Saracen Empire,' London, 1870
"The greatest success of Mohammad's life was effected by sheer moral force."
"It is not the propagation but the permanency of his religion that deserves our wonder, the same pure and perfect impression which he engraved at Mecca and Medina is preserved after the revolutions of twelve centuries by the Indian, the African and the Turkish proselytes of the Koran....The Mahometans have uniformly withstood the temptation of reducing the object of their faith and devotion to a level with the senses and imagination of man. 'I believe in One God and Mahomet the Apostle of God' is the simple and invariable profession of Islam. The intellectual image of the Deity has never been degraded by any visible idol; the honors of the prophet have never transgressed the measure of human virtue, and his living precepts have restrained the gratitude of his disciples within the bounds of reason and religion."
Reverend Bosworth Smith in 'Muhammad and Muhammadanism,' London, 1874.
"Head of the State as well as the Church, he was Caesar and Pope in one; but he was Pope without the Pope's pretensions, and Caesar without the legions of Caesar, without a standing army, without a bodyguard, without a police force, without a fixed revenue. If ever a man ruled by a right divine, it was Muhammad, for he had all the powers without their supports. He cared not for the dressings of power. The simplicity of his private life was in keeping with his public life."
"In Mohammadanism every thing is different here. Instead of the shadowy and the mysterious, we have history....We know of the external history of Muhammad....while for his internal history after his mission had been proclaimed, we have a book absolutely unique in its origin, in its preservation....on the Substantial authority of which no one has ever been able to cast a serious doubt."
Edward Montet, 'La Propagande Chretienne et ses Adversaries Musulmans,' Paris 1890. (Also in T.W. Arnold in 'The Preaching of Islam,' London 1913.)
"Islam is a religion that is essentially rationalistic in the widest sense of this term considered etymologically and historically....the teachings of the Prophet, the Qur'an has invariably kept its place as the fundamental starting point, and the dogma of unity of God has always been proclaimed therein with a grandeur a majesty, an invariable purity and with a note of sure conviction, which it is hard to find surpassed outside the pale of Islam....A creed so precise, so stripped of all theological complexities and consequently so accessible to the ordinary understanding might be expected to possess and does indeed possess a marvelous power of winning its way into the consciences of men."
Alphonse de LaMartaine in 'Historie de la Turquie,' Paris, 1854.
"Never has a man set for himself, voluntarily or involuntarily, a more sublime aim, since this aim was superhuman; to subvert superstitions which had been imposed between man and his Creator, to render God unto man and man unto God; to restore the rational and sacred idea of divinity amidst the chaos of the material and disfigured gods of idolatry, then existing. Never has a man undertaken a work so far beyond human power with so feeble means, for he (Muhammad) had in the conception as well as in the execution of such a great design, no other instrument than himself and no other aid except a handful of men living in a corner of the desert. Finally, never has a man accomplished such a huge and lasting revolution in the world, because in less than two centuries after its appearance, Islam, in faith and in arms, reigned over the whole of Arabia, and conquered, in God's name, Persia Khorasan, Transoxania, Western India, Syria, Egypt, Abyssinia, all the known continent of Northern Africa, numerous islands of the Mediterranean Sea, Spain, and part of Gaul.
"If greatness of purpose, smallness of means, and astonishing results are the three criteria of a human genius, who could dare compare any great man in history with Muhammad? The most famous men created arms, laws, and empires only. They founded, if anything at all, no more than material powers which often crumbled away before their eyes. This man moved not only armies, legislations, empires, peoples, dynasties, but millions of men in one-third of the then inhabited world; and more than that, he moved the altars, the gods, the religions, the ideas, the beliefs and the souls.
"On the basis of a Book, every letter which has become law, he created a spiritual nationality which blend together peoples of every tongue and race. He has left the indelible characteristic of this Muslim nationality the hatred of false gods and the passion for the One and Immaterial God. This avenging patriotism against the profanation of Heaven formed the virtue of the followers of Muhammad; the conquest of one-third the earth to the dogma was his miracle; or rather it was not the miracle of man but that of reason.
"The idea of the unity of God, proclaimed amidst the exhaustion of the fabulous theogonies, was in itself such a miracle that upon it's utterance from his lips it destroyed all the ancient temples of idols and set on fire one-third of the world. His life, his meditations, his heroic revelings against the superstitions of his country, and his boldness in defying the furies of idolatry, his firmness in enduring them for fifteen years in Mecca, his acceptance of the role of public scorn and almost of being a victim of his fellow countrymen... This dogma was twofold the unity of God and the immateriality of God: the former telling what God is, the latter telling what God is not; the one overthrowing false gods with the sword, the other starting an idea with words.
"Philosopher, Orator, Apostle, Legislator, Conqueror of Ideas, Restorer of Rational beliefs.... The founder of twenty terrestrial empires and of one spiritual empire that is Muhammad. As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?"
Mahatma Gandhi, statement published in 'Young India,'1924.
I wanted to know the best of the life of one who holds today an undisputed sway over the hearts of millions of mankind.... I became more than ever convinced that it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days in the scheme of life. It was the rigid simplicity, the utter self-effacement of the Prophet the scrupulous regard for pledges, his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his intrepidity, his fearlessness, his absolute trust in God and in his own mission. These and not the sword carried everything before them and surmounted every obstacle. When I closed the second volume (of the Prophet's biography), I was sorry there was not more for me to read of that great life.
Sir George Bernard Shaw in 'The Genuine Islam,' Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936.
"If any religion had the chance of ruling over England, nay Europe within the next hundred years, it could be Islam."
"I have always held the religion of Muhammad in high estimation because of its wonderful vitality. It is the only religion which appears to me to possess that assimilating capacity to the changing phase of existence which can make itself appeal to every age. I have studied him - the wonderful man and in my opinion for from being an anti-Christ, he must be called the Savior of Humanity."
"I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it the much needed peace and happiness: I have prophesied about the faith of Muhammad that it would be acceptable to the Europe of tomorrow as it is beginning to be acceptable to the Europe of today."
Michael Hart in 'The 100, A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons In History,' New York, 1978.
My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world's most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the secular and religious level. ...It is probable that the relative influence of Muhammad on Islam has been larger than the combined influence of Jesus Christ and St. Paul on Christianity. ...It is this unparalleled combination of secular and religious influence which I feel entitles Muhammad to be considered the most influential single figure in human history.
Dr. William Draper in 'History of Intellectual Development of Europe'
Four years after the death of Justinian, A.D. 569, was born in Mecca, in Arabia, the man who, of all men, has exercised the greatest influence upon the human race... To be the religious head of many empires, to guide the daily life of one-third of the human race, may perhaps justify the title of a Messenger of God.
Arthur Glyn Leonard in 'Islam, Her Moral and Spiritual Values'
It was the genius of Muhammad, the spirit that he breathed into the Arabs through the soul of Islam that exalted them. That raised them out of the lethargy and low level of tribal stagnation up to the high watermark of national unity and empire. It was in the sublimity of Muhammad's deism, the simplicity, the sobriety and purity it inculcated the fidelity of its founder to his own tenets, that acted on their moral and intellectual fiber with all the magnetism of true inspiration.
Philip K. Hitti in 'History of the Arabs'
Within a brief span of mortal life, Muhammad called forth of unpromising material, a nation, never welded before; in a country that was hitherto but a geographical expression he established a religion which in vast areas suppressed Christianity and Judaism, and laid the basis of an empire that was soon to embrace within its far flung boundaries the fairest provinces the then civilized world.
Rodwell in the Preface to his translation of the Holy Qur'an
Mohammad's career is a wonderful instance of the force and life that resides in him who possesses an intense faith in God and in the unseen world. He will always be regarded as one of those who have had that influence over the faith, morals and whole earthly life of their fellow men, which none but a really great man ever did, or can exercise; and whose efforts to propagate a great verity will prosper.
W. Montgomery Watt in 'Muhammad at Mecca,' Oxford, 1953.
His readiness to undergo persecution for his beliefs, the high moral character of the men who believed in him and looked up to him as a leader, and the greatness of his ultimate achievement - all argue his fundamental integrity. To suppose Muhammad an impostor raises more problems that it solves. Moreover, none of the great figures of history is so poorly appreciated in the West as Muhammad.... Thus, not merely must we credit Muhammad with essential honesty and integrity of purpose, if we are to understand him at all; if we are to correct the errors we have inherited from the past, we must not forget the conclusive proof is a much stricter requirement than a show of plausibility, and in a matter such as this only to be attained with difficulty.
D. G. Hogarth in 'Arabia'
Serious or trivial, his daily behavior has instituted a canon which millions observe this day with conscious memory. No one regarded by any section of the human race as Perfect Man has ever been imitated so minutely. The conduct of the founder of Christianity has not governed the ordinary life of his followers. Moreover, no founder of a religion has left on so solitary an eminence as the Muslim apostle.
Washington Irving 'Mahomet and His Successors'
He was sober and abstemious in his diet and a rigorous observer of fasts. He indulged in no magnificence of apparel, the ostentation of a petty mind; neither was his simplicity in dress affected but a result of real disregard for distinction from so trivial a source.
In his private dealings he was just. He treated friends and strangers, the rich and poor, the powerful and weak, with equity, and was beloved by the common people for the affability with which he received them, and listened to their complaints.
His military triumphs awakened no pride nor vain glory, as they would have done had they been effected for selfish purposes. In the time of his greatest power he maintained the same simplicity of manners and appearance as in the days of his adversity. So far from affecting a regal state, he was displeased if, on entering a room, any unusual testimonials of respect were shown to him. If he aimed at a universal dominion, it was the dominion of faith; as to the temporal rule which grew up in his hands, as he used it without ostentation, so he took no step to perpetuate it in his family.
James Michener in 'Islam: The Misunderstood Religion,' Reader's Digest, May 1955, pp. 68-70.
"No other religion in history spread so rapidly as Islam. The West has widely believed that this surge of religion was made possible by the sword. But no modern scholar accepts this idea, and the Qur'an is explicit in the support of the freedom of conscience."
"Like almost every major prophet before him, Muhammad fought shy of serving as the transmitter of God's word sensing his own inadequacy. But the Angel commanded 'Read'. So far as we know, Muhammad was unable to read or write, but he began to dictate those inspired words which would soon revolutionize a large segment of the earth: "There is one God"."
"In all things Muhammad was profoundly practical. When his beloved son Ibrahim died, an eclipse occurred and rumors of God 's personal condolence quickly arose. Whereupon Muhammad is said to have announced, 'An eclipse is a phenomenon of nature. It is foolish to attribute such things to the death or birth of a human being'."
"At Muhammad's own death an attempt was made to deify him, but the man who was to become his administrative successor killed the hysteria with one of the noblest speeches in religious history: 'If there are any among you who worshiped Muhammad, he is dead. But if it is God you Worshiped, He lives for ever'."
Lawrence E. Browne in 'The Prospects of Islam,' 1944
Incidentally these well-established facts dispose of the idea so widely fostered in Christian writings that the Muslims, wherever they went, forced people to accept Islam at the point of the sword.
K. S. Ramakrishna Rao in 'Mohammed: The Prophet of Islam,' 1989
My problem to write this monograph is easier, because we are not generally fed now on that (distorted) kind of history and much time need not be spent on pointing out our misrepresentations of Islam. The theory of Islam and sword, for instance, is not heard now in any quarter worth the name. The principle of Islam that "there is no compulsion in religion" is well known.
In regards to the freedom of worship for Christians, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) granted the following Charter of Privileges to the Monks of St. Catherine Monastery in Mt. Sinai. It consisted of several clauses covering all aspects of human rights including such topics as the protection of Christians, freedom of worship and movement, freedom to appoint their own judges and to own and maintain their property, exemption from military service, and the right to protection in war. The English translation of that document is as follows:
This is a message from Muhammad ibn Abdullah, as a covenant to those who adopt Christianity, near and far, we are with them.
Verily I, the servants, the helpers, and my followers defend them, because Christians are my citizens; and by Allah! I hold out against anything that displeases them.
No compulsion is to be on them.
Neither are their judges to be removed from their jobs nor their monks from their monasteries.
No one is to destroy a house of their religion, to damage it, or to carry anything from it to the Muslims' houses.
Should anyone take any of these, he would spoil God's covenant and disobey His Prophet. Verily, they are my allies and have my secure charter against all that they hate.
No one is to force them to travel or to oblige them to fight.
The Muslims are to fight for them.
If a female Christian is married to a Muslim it is not to take place without her approval. She is not to be prevented from visiting her church to pray.
Their churches are to be respected. They are neither to be prevented from repairing them nor the sacredness of their covenants.
No one of the nation (Muslims) is to disobey the covenant till the Last Day (end of the world).
This charter of privileges has been honored and faithfully applied by Muslims throughout the centuries in all lands they ruled
Clarifying Confusion
The name Allah is in Arabic for God. This is also used by Christian Arabs and Jews (Eloh-im in Hebrew); 'Allaha' in Aramaic, the mother tongue of Jesus.
They all worship the same one God. There is sometimes confusion about this because Muslims usually call God by the name Allah. This is a contraction of Al Ilah, The God. Ilah, the Arabic for God, is a very close cognate of the Hebrew Eloh (Elohim, with the im suffix also seen in Cherubim, Sephardim, etc.). The main prophets of Islam are Muhammed, Jesus (Isa), Moses (Musa) and Abraham (Ibrahim). Muslims call Christians and Jews "people of the Book", meaning that they follow the teachings of God's prophets as set down in the Bible. On most things, Islam and Christianity agree. Islam and Judaism are even closer as to morality and the rules for daily living.
"From this Islam has derived a very basic doctrine, namely, that although Jews and Christians have received revelations from God, they have not preserved these faithfully. Therefore God has had to re-issue this revelation through Muhammad and the Qur'an. And so, even though Jews and Christians are tolerated in Muslim societies as people of the book, according to Islam their faiths are corrupted versions of the faith that God has corrected in Islam. God has granted numerous revelations for example, through Moses and the Torah, through David and the Psalter, and through Jesus and the evangel. But these always got corrupted, so the final and definitive revelation was given through Muhammad in the Qur'an. This one, Muslims hold, has not been corrupted but has been faithfully preserved for these nearly 1400 years."
"Given this basic understanding in Islamic thought, the overwhelming majority of the world's one billion Muslims, including American Muslims, see Christianity the way most Christians through most of Christian history have seen Judaism as a religion that has been superseded. Most Christians have thought that since Jesus is the fulfillment and correction of Judaism, Jews should have believed in Jesus as Messiah and become Christians. Judaism should have disappeared. That's how Muslims see Christianity. Because Islam possesses the latest and definitive revelation of God in the Qur'an, all Christians should have converted to Islam, and Christianity should have disappeared. This explains Muslims' notorious resistance to conversion to Christianity. As most Christians do not find any appeal in an invitation to convert to Judaism because it seems like a step backwards, historically and religiously, so Muslims are repulsed by any invitation to convert to Christianity, because they see such conversion as a return to an earlier and inferior and even corrupted religion that has been superseded by God's latest and final revelation through Muhammad in the Qur'an."
(Marlin Jeschke Professor Emeritus, Goshen College, Goshen, IN)
"As in Christianity, proselytization is a deeply rooted Islamic tradition, yet it is in its infancy in America in comparison to the organized Church efforts to save the souls of non-believers. Christian institutes like World Vision, the Zwemer Institute of Islamic studies, and Center for Ministry to Muslims are aggressively engaged to take advantage of the presence of millions of Muslims now living in America, and they have developed programs to focus on American Muslims to win them over to Christianity. In response, several Islamic Associations and Societies are functioning with clear objective of winning the hearts and minds of Christians and Jews - the People of the Book - for Islam."
In fact the Qur'an says the exact opposite: There is no compulsion in religion ( 2:256 ).
Muslim Contribution to the World
John William Drapers wrote the contribution of early Muslims in the field of astronomy in his book: The Intellectual Development of Europe:
"I have to deplore the systematic manner in which the literature of Europe has contrived to put out of sight our scientific obligations to the Mohammadans. Surely they can not be much longer hidden. Injustice founded on religious rancour and national conceit cannot be perpetuated for ever. What should the modern astronomer say, when, remembering the contemporary barbarism of Europe, he finds the Arab Abul Hassan speaking of turbes, to the extremities of which ocular and object diopters, perhaps sights, were attached, as used at Meragha? What when he reads of the attempts of Abdur Rahman Sufi at improving the photometry of stars? Are the astronomical tables of Ibn Junis (A.D. 1008) called the Hakemite tables, or the Ilkanic tables of Nasir-ud-din Toosi, constructed at the great observatory just mentioned, Meragha near Tauris (1259 A.D.), or the measurement of time by pendulum oscillations, and the method of correcting astronomical tables by systematic observations are such things worthless indications of the mental State? The Arab has left his intellectual impress on Europe, as, before long, Christendom will have to confess; he has indelibly Written it on the heavens, as any one may see who reads the names of the stars on a common celestial globe."
Experimental Methodology
The Greek method of acquiring scientific knowledge was mainly speculative, hence science as such could make little headway during the time of the Greeks.
The Arabs who were more realistic and practical in their approach adopted the experimental method to harness scientific knowledge. Observation and experiment formed the vehicle of their scientific pursuits, hence they gave a new outlook to science of which the world had been totally unaware. Their achievements in the field of experimental science added a golden chapter to the annals of scientific knowledge and opened a new vista for the growth of modern sciences. Al-Ghazali was the follower of Aristotle in logic, but among Muslims, Ishraqi and Ibn-iTaimiyya were first to undertake the systematic refutation of Greek logic. Abu Bakr Razi criticised Aristotle's first figure and followed the inductive spirit which was reformulated by John Stuart Mill. Ibn-i-Hazm in his well known work Scope of Logic lays stress on sense perception as a source of knowledge and Ibn-i-Taimiyya in his Refuttion of Logic proves beyond doubt that induction is the only sure form of argument, which ultimately gave birth to the method of observation and experiment. It is absolutely wrong to assume that experimental method was formulated in Europe. Roger Bacon, who, in the west is known as the originator of experimental method in Europe, had himself received his training from the pupils of Spanish Moors, and had learnt everything from Muslim sources. The influence of Ibn Haitham on Roger Bacon is clearly visible in his works. Europe was very slow to recognise the Islamic origin of her much advertised scientific (experimental) method.
Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Geber) who flourished in Kufa about 776 A.D. is known as the father of modern chemistry and along with Zakariya Razi, stands as the greatest name in the annals of chemical science during mediaeval times. He got his education from Omayyad Prince Khalid Ibn Yazid Ibn Muawiyah and the celebrated Imam Jafar al-Sadiq.
Jabir modified and corrected the Aristotelian theory of the constituents of metal, which remained unchanged until the beginning of modern chemistry in the 18th century. He has explained in his works the preparation of many chemical substances including "Cinnabar" (sulphide of mercury) and arsenic oxide. It has been established through historical research that he knew how to obtain nearly pure vitrilos, alums, alkalis and how to produce 'the so-called liver' and milk of sulphur by heating sulphur with alkali. He prepared mercury oxide and was fully conversant with the preparation of crude sulphuric and nitric acids. He knew the method of the solution of gold and silver with this acid. His chemical treatises on such subjects have been translated into several European languages including Latin and several technical scientific terms invented by Jabir have been adopted in modern chemistry. A real estimate of his achievements is only possible when his enormous chemical work including the Book of Seventy are published. Richard Russell (1678, A.D.) an English translator ascribes a book entitled Sun of Perfection to Jabir. A number of his chemical works have been published by Berthelot. His books translated into English are the Book of Kingdom, Book of Balances and Book of Eastern mercury. Jabir also advanced a theory on the geologic formation of metals and dealt with many useful practical applications of chemistry such as refinement of metals, preparation of steel and dyeing of cloth and leather, varnishing of waterproof cloth and use of manganese dioxide to colour glass.
The Muslims developed physics to a high degree and produced such eminent physicist as Kindi, Jahiz, Banu Musa, Beruni, Razi and Abdur Rahman Ibn Nasr.
Abu Yusuf Ibn Ishaq, known as al-Kindi was born at Kufa in themiddle of the 9th century and flourished in Baghdad. He is the most dominating and one of the greatest Muslim scholars of physics. Over and above this, he was an astrologer, philosopher, alchemist, optician and musical theorist. He wrote more than 265 books, the majority of which have been lost. Most of his works which survived are in Latin having been translated by Gerard of Cremona. Of these fifteen are on meteorology, several on specific weight, on tides, on optics and on reflection of light, and eight are on music. His optics influenced Roger Bacon. He wrote several books on iron and steel to be used for weapons. He applied mathematics not only to physics, but also to medicine. He was therefore regarded by Cardon, a philosopher of the Renaissance, "as one of the 12 subtlest minds." ·He thought that gold and silver could only be obtained from mines and not through any other process. He endeavoured to ascertain the laws that govern the fall of bodies. Razi investigated on the determination of specific gravity of means of hydrostatic balance, called by him Mizan-al-Tabii. Most of his works on physics, mathematics, astronomy and optics have perished. In physics his writings deal with matter, space, time and motion. In his opinion matter in the primitive state before the creation of the world was composed of scattered atoms, which possessed extent. Mixed in various proportions with the articles of void, these atoms produced these elements which are five ih number namely earth, air, water, fire and celestial element. Fire is created by striking iron on the stone.
Abu Rehan Beruni, was a versatile genius, who adorned the durbar of Mahmud of Ghazni. His outstanding achievement in the realm of physics was the accurate determination of the weight of 18 stones. He also discovered that light travels faster than sound. He has also contributed immensely to geological knowledge by providing the correct explanation of the formation'of natural spring and artesian wells, He suggested that the Indus valley was formerly an ancient basin filled with alluvial soil. His Kitab al Jawahir deals with different types of gems and their specific gravity. A voluminous unedited lapidary by Betuni is kept in manuscript form in the Escorial Library. It deals.with a large number of stones and metals from the natural, commercial and medical point of view. Barlu Musa has left behind him a work on balance, while Al-Jahiz used hydrostatic balance to determine specific gravity. An excellent treatise had been written by Al-Naziri regarding atmosphere.
Khazini, was a well known scientist ofIslam, who explained the greater density of water when nearer to the centre of the earth. Roger Bacon, who proved the same hypotheses afterwards based his proof on the theories advanced by Khazini. His brilliant work Mizanul Hikma deals with gravity and contains tables of densities of many solids and liquids. It also contains "observation on capillarity, uses of aerometer to measure densities and appreciate the temperature of liquids, theory of the lever and the application of balance to building." Chapters on weights and measures' were written by Ibn Jami and Al-Attar. Abdur Rahman Ibn Nasr wrote an excellent treatise on weights and measures for the use of Egyptian markets.
The Muslim scientists made considerable progress in biology especially in botany, and developed horticulture to a high degree of perfection. They paid greater attention to botany in comparison to zoology. Botany reached its zenith in Spain. In zoology the study of the horse was developed almost to the tank of a science. Abu Ubaidah (728--825 A. D.) who wrote more than 100 books, devoted more than fifty books to the study of the horse.
Al-Jahiz, who flourished in Basra is reputed to be one of the greatest zoologists the Muslim world has produced. His influence in the subject may be traced to 'the Persian'Al-Qazwini' and the Egyptian 'Al-Damiri'. His book 'Ritab al Haywan' (book ori animals) contains germs of later theories of evolution, adaptation and animal psychology. He was the first to note changes in bird life through migrations, Re described the method of obtaining 'ammonia from animal offal by dry distilling.'
Al-Damiri, who died in 1405 in Cairo and who was influenced by Al-Jahiz is the greatest Arab zoologist. His book Hayat Haywarz (Life of animal) is the most important Muslim work in zoology. It is an encyclopaedia on animal life containing a mine of information on the subject. It contains the history of animals and preceded Buffon by 700 years.
Al-Masudi, has given the rudiments of the theory of evolution in his well known work Meadows of gold. Another of his works Kitab al-Tanbih wal Ishraq advances his views on evolution namely from mineral to plant, from plant to animal and from animal to man.
In botany Spanish Muslims made the greatest contribution, and some of them are known as the greatest botanists of mediaeval times. They were keen observers and discovered sexual difference between such plants as palms and hemps. They roamed about on sea shores, on mountains and in distant lands in quest of rare botanical herbs. They classified plants into those that grow from seeds, those that grow from cuttings and those that grow of their own accord, i.e., wild growth. The Spanish Muslims advanced in botany far beyond the state in which "it had been left by Dioscorides and augmented the herbology of the Greeks by the addition of 2,000 plants" Regular botanical gardens existed in Cordova, Baghdad, Cairo and Fez for teaching and experimental purposes. Some of these were the finest in the world.
The Cordovan physician, Al-Ghafiqi (D. 1165) was a renowned botanist, who collected plants in Spain and Africa, and described them most accurately. According to G. Sarton he was "the greatest expert of his time on simples. His description of plants was the most precise ever made in Islam; he gave the names of each in Arabic, Latin and Berber".l His outstanding work Al Adwiyah al Mufradah dealing with simples was later appropriated by Ibn Baytar."
Abu Zakariya Yahya Ibn Muhammad Ibn AlAwwan, who flourished at the end of 12 century in Seville (Spain) was the author of the most important Islamic treatise on agriculture during the mediaeval times entitled Kitab al Filahah. The book treats more than 585 plants and deals with the cultivation of more than 50 fruit trees. It also discusses numerous diseases of plants and suggests their remedies. The book presents new observations on properties of soil and different types of manures.
Abdullah Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Baytar, was the greatest botanist and pharmacist of Spain--in fact the greatest of mediaeval times. He roamed about in search of plants and collected herbs on the Mediterranean littoral, from Spain to Syria, described more than 1,400 medical drugs and compared them with the records of more than 150 ancient and Arabian authors. The collection of simple drugs composed by him is the ilaost outstanding botanical work in Arabic. "This book, in fact is the most important for the whole period extending from Dioscorides down to the 16th cenfury." It is an encyclopaedic work on the subject. He later entered into the service of the Ayyubid king, al-Malik al-l(amil, as his chief herbalist in Cairo. From there he travelled through Syria and Asia Minor, and died in Damascus. One of his works AI-Mughani-fi al Adwiyah al Mufradah deals with medicine. The other Al Jami Ji al Adwiyah al Mufradah is a very valuable book containing simple remedies regarding animal, vegetable and mineral matters which has been described above. It deals also with 200 novel plants which were not known upto that time. Abul Abbas Al-Nabati also wandered along the African Coast from Spain to Arabia in search of herbs and plants. He discovered some rare plants on the shore of Red Sea.
Another botanist Ibn Sauri, was accompanied by an artist during his travels in Syria, who made sketches of the plants which they found.
Ibn Wahshiya, wrote his celebrated work al-Filahah al-Nabatiyah containing valuable information about :animals and plants.
Transmission to the West
The Muslims were the pioneers of sciences and arts during mediaeval times and formed the necessary link between the ancients and the moderns. Their light of learning dispelled the gloom that had enveloped Europe. Moorish Spain was the main source from which the scientific knowledge of the Muslims and their great achievements were transmitted to France, Germany and England. The Spanish universities of Cordova, SeviIle and Granada were thronged with Christian and Jewish students who learnt science from the Muslim scientists and who then popularised them in their native lands. Another source for the transmission of Muslim scientific knowledge was Sicily, where during the reign of Muslim kings and even afterwards a large number of scientific works were translated from Arabic into Latin. The most prominent translators who translated Muslims works from Arabic into European languages were Gerard of Cremona, Adelard of Bath, Roger Bacon and Robert Chester. Writing in his celebrated work Moors in Spain Stanley Lane Poole says, "For nearly eight centuries under the Mohammadan rulers, Spain set out to all Europe a shining example of a civilized and enlightened State--Arts, literature and science prospered as they prospered nowhere in Europe. Students flocked from France, Germany and England to drink from the fountain of learning which flowed down in the cities of Moors. The surgeons and doctors of Andalusia were in the van of science; women were encouraged to serious study and the lady doctor was not always unknown among the people of Cordova. Mathematics, astronomy and botany, history, philosophy and jurisprudence, were to be mastered in Spain, and Spain alone. The practical work of the field, the scientific methods of irrigation, the arts of fortification and shipbuilding, of the highest and most elaborate products of the loom, the gravel and the hammer, the potter's wheel and mason's trowel, were brought to perfection by the Spanish Moors. Whatever makes a kingdom great and prosperous, whatever tends to refinement and civilization was found in Muslim Spain."l
The students flocked to Spanish cities from all parts of Europe to be infused with the light of learning which lit up Moorish Spain. Another western historian writes, "The light of these universities shone far beyond the Muslim world, and drew students to them from east and west. At Cordova in particular there were a number of Christian students, and the influence of Arab philosophy coming by way of Spain upon universities of Paris, Oxford and North Italy and upon western Europe thought generally, was very considerable indeed. The book copying industry flourished at Alexandria, Damascus, Cairo and Baghdad and about the year 970, there were 27 free schools open in Cordova for the education of the poor.
Such were the great achievements of Muslims in the field of science which paved the way for the growth of modern sciences.
Arabs were the founders of every day arithmetic and taught the use of ciphers to the world.
Musa al-Khwarizmi (780--850 A.D.) a native of Khwarizm, who lived in the reign of Mamun-ar-Rashid, was one of the greatest mathematicians of all times. He composed the oldest Islamic works on arithmetic and algebra which were the principal source of knowledge on the subject for a fairly long time. George Sarton pays glowing tribute to this outstanding Muslim mathematician and considers him "one of the greatest scientists of his race and the greatest of his time".' He systematised Greek and Hindu mathematical knowledge and profoundly influenced mathematical thought during mediaeval times. He championed the use of Hindu numerals and has the distinction of being the author of the oldest Arabic work on arithmetic known as Kitab-ul Jama wat Tafriq. The original version of this work has disappeared but its Latin translation Trattati a" Arithmetic edited by Bon Compagni in 1157 at Rome is still in existence.
Is a word derived from the Arabic source AlJabar and is the product of Arabic genius.
Al-Khwarizmi the celebrated mathematician is also the author ofHisab Al-Jabr Wal Muqabla, an outstanding work on algebra which contains analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations. Khwarizmi has the distinction of being one of the founders of algebra who developed this branch of science to an exceptionally high degree. He also gives geometric solutions of quadratic equations, e.g., x2+10x=39 an equation which was repeated by later mathematicians. Robert Chester was the first to translate this book into Latin in 1145 A. D. which introduced Algebra into Europe.
It has been universally acknowledged that plane and spherical trigonometry were founded by Muslims who developed it considerably. The Greeks and other advanced nations of the ancient world were ignorant of this essential branch of mathematics.
Khwarizmi, the Muslim mathematician has made valuable contributions to this branch of mathematics also..His trigonometrical tables which deal with the sine and tangent were translated into Latin in 1126 A. D. by Adelard of Bath.
Al-Battani (Latin Albategnius). The nation of trigonometrical ratios, which is now prevalent, owes its birth to the mathematical talents of Al-Battani. The third chapter, of his astronomical work, dealing with trigonometry, was several times translated into Latin and Spanish languages.
Jabir Bin Afiah is the author of the celebrated book Kitab Elahia which deals with astronomy and trigonometry. "His book Kitab Elahia says H. Suter, "is noteworthy for preparing the astronomical part with a special chapter on trigonometry. In his spherical trigonometry he takes the rule of the four magnitudes as the foundation for the deviations of his formulae and gives for the first time the fifth main formula of the right angled triangle."' His work was translated in Latin by Gerard of Cremona.
Abul Wafa (939--997, 998 A.D.) born at Buzjan in Khorasan later on established in Iraq was one of the greatest mathematicians that Islam has produced. He devoted himself to the researches in mathematics and astronomy. His Zijush Shamil (consolidated tables) are distinguished for their accurate observation and he introduced as well as popularised the use of the secant and tangent in trigonometry. "But this was not all" says Sedillot; "struck by the imperfection of the lunar theory of Ptolemy, he verified the ancient observations, and discovered, independently of the equation of the centre and the eviction, a third inequality, which is no other than the variation determined six centuries later by Tycho Brahe."' Abul Wafa was also an outstanding geometer who studied the quadrature of parabola and the volume of paraboloid. Writing in the Legacy of Islam, Carra de Vaux says, "Abul Wafa's services to trigonometry are indisputable. With him trigonometry becomes all the more explicit."" G. Sarton pays glowing tribute to the genius of this Muslim mathematician when he say's, "Abul Wafa contributed considerably to the development of trigonometry. He was probably first to show the generality of sine theorem relative to spherical triangles. He gave a new method of constructing sine tables--the value of sine 30 being correct to the 8th decimal place......He made a special study of tangent; calculated a table of tangents; introduced the secant and cosecant; knew those simple relations between the six trigonometric lines, which are now often used to define them.""
Abul Hasan Koshiyar (971--1029 A. D.) was a Persian mathematician who wrote his works in Arabic. He played a dominant role in the development of trigonometry. His main subject was the elaboration and explanation of the tangent.
Nasir-ud-din Toosi, a versatile genius, played no mean part in the development of trigonometry. His works on trigonometry mark the culmination of the advancement on the subject. He is the author of the Kitab shakl al-Qita in which trigonometry has been treated independently of astronomy. The book is very comprehensive and rather the best work on the subject written in mediaeval times. It was translated into French and edited by Alexandre Cara Theodory Pasha in 1891. Carra de Vaux says "Trigonometry, plane or spherical, is now well established and finds in this book its first methodically developed and deliberate expression."' Nasir-ud-din's book remained to be the greatest work of its kind until De triangulurs of Regiomontenus two centuries later.
Medical Sciences
The downfall of the Roman Empire caused intellectual stagnation and the storm of barbarism which swept over the world presented the greatest threat to cultural progress, which would have been in danger of total extinction, had it not been saved by the timely intervention of the Arabs. "The Arabs" says Humboldt, "were admirably situated to act the part of mediators, and to influence the nations from the Eupharates to the Guadalquivir and Mid-Africa. Their unexampled intellectual activity marks a distinct epoch in the history of the world."'
The golden era of Muslims' achievement in the field of scientific and philosophical research, began in 900 A. D. and lasted for two centuries.
Ali Ibn Al-Abbas-al-Majusi known in the west as Haly Abbas, who died in 994 A. D., was the author of a celebrated work Kitab-al-Maliki known as Liber Regius in Latin, an excellent and compact encyclopaedia dealing with both the theory and practice of medical science. It is less voluminous than Al-Razi's Hawi and it remained a standard book until it was superseded by the Canon the masterpiece of the great Avicenna. Perhaps Majusi was the first physician to write about the capillary system and to describe accurately the way in which a child is born.
Abu Ali Al-Husain-al-Sina, (980--1037 A.D.) known as Avicenna in the west was one of the greatest intellectuals of the Islamic world who is ranked second only to Aristotle, the greatest mind the world has ever produced. His intellectual achievement as a physician is less remarkable than his achievements as a philosopher and physicist. He had visited the court of Noah the II, the Samanid Ruler of Bokhara who allowed him to use his well equipped library. His gigantic work AlQanun-Fil-Tib known as Canon in Latin is the culmination and masterpiece of Arab systematisation. It is a medical encyclopaedia dealing with 760 drugs, as well as with general medicine, simple drugs, and diseases affecting all parts of the body. It is particularly concerned with Pathology and Pharmacopoeia and was translated into Latin in the 12th century by Gerard of Cremona. The popularity of this excellent book may be gauged by the fact that during the last 30 years of the 15th century it was printed 16 times and in the 16th century 20 times in various European languages. Publications including sections from this work as well as commentaries on it in various languages of both the east and West are innumerable. According to a celebrated western writer, "Probably no medical work ever written has been so much studied ......Hence his influence on European medicine has been overwhelming."' Sir Jadu Nath Sircar, the celebrated Indian Historian pays eloquent tribute to Ibn Sina when he says, "Avicenna was the greatest intellectual giant of the middle ages."" He discovered the spreading of disease through water. Avicenna was responsible for elevating Islamic medicine to its zenith, and his portrait as well as that of AI-Razi still adorns the grand Hall of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Paris.
Abu-Al-Jarrah-Al-Zahrawi known in Latin as Abul Casis who died in 1013 was a great surgeon who wrote AE-Tasrif containing 30 sections, the last of which deals with surgery. Muslim physicians at that time did not pay any attention to surgery and it was a totally neglected field. Al-Tasrif is fully illustrated with sketches of surgical instruments and it profoundly contributed to the development of surgery both in the East and the West. It was translated into several European languages and the famous French surgeon Guy de Chauliac benefitted from one of its Latin translations. Stanley Lane Poole in his celebrated work The Moors in Spain pays eloquent tribute to the part played by Spanish Muslims in the awakening of the West, when he says, "Every branch of science was seriously studied there, and medicine received more and greater additions by the discoveries of the doctors and surgeons of Andalusia than it had gained during all the centuries that had elapsed since the days of Galen."'
Ali Ibn Isa of Baghdad known in Latin as Jesu Occulist has written an excellent treatise on ophthalmology, a branch of medicine dealing with eye diseases. It was translated into Latin and was considered the authoritative work on eye diseases in Europe till the middle of the 18th century.l
Abu Ali al-Hasan (965-1020 A.D.) known as Alhazen in the west is recognised as the greatest authority on optics the world has ever produced. He was born at Basra and later joined the service of a Fatimid Caliph of Egypt, where he was assigned to discover the method of regulating the inundation of the river Nile. He could not achieve this objective, hence he had to remain underground till the death of the Caliph. He has made valuable contributions to the development of physics and medicine, but his outstanding achievement is in the realm of optics. He has corrected the theories of Euclid and Ptolemy on the subject. His Opticae Thesaurus influenced such great writers on optics as Roger Bacon, Leonard da Vinci, John Kepler and all mediaeval western writers, who base their works on the research of Alhazen. The two greatest luminaries of the Islamic world Ibn Sina and Al-Beruni shared and fully endorsed Alhazen's opinion that, 'It is not the ray that leaves the eye and meets the object that gives rise to vision. Rather the form of the perceived object passes into the eye and is transmitted by its transparent body.
Ibn Rushd known as Averroes in the west who died in 1198 in Morocco is the greatest Aristotelian philosopher, He is the author of 16 medical works of which one Kulliyat Fil Tib dealing with general rules of medicine was translated into Latin as Colliget. It was printed several times in Europe. Averroes is one of the most outstanding literary figures that Islamic Spain has produced and he was instrumental in clearing away the darkness of illiteracy that had enveloped Europe.
Ibn Katina, the Moorish physician who died in 1369 A.D. is the author of excellent book on the plague. A severe plague which ravaged Alemaria in Spain in 1348-49 A.D. caused the celebrated physician to write a treatise on the plague which was superior to all earlier works on the subject. This book was edited and translated in Europe in the 15th century A.D. and revealed the contagious character of the plague and its remedies which were not known to Greek physicians.
The study of medicine in Europe began at Salerno (Sicily) where Constantine the African, a disciple of an Arab Physician organised the first medical school. The medical school of Montpellier soon followed suit, which was founded on the pattern of Cordova under the guidance of Jewish doctors. Other schools on the same lines were opened at Pisa and later at Padua (Italy) where Canon of Avicenna and the Surgery of Abul Qasim remained until the 17th century the text books of medical science throughout Europe. Robert Briffault writes, "The Pharmacopoeia created by the Arabs is virtually that which but for the recent- Synthetic and organotherapic--Apic preparations, is in use at the present day; our common drugs, such as nux vomica, Senna, Rknbarb, aconite, gention, myrrh, calomel and structure of our prescriptions, belong to the Arabic medicine.
The Muslims, even in the days of early Islam; had, developed a high culture and had organised their administration on a sound footing. The Islamic Caliphates as well as other Muslim principalities had created separate departments for different subjects which were headed by Ministers and supervised by Secretaries. Organised on highly efficient lines was the public works department whose function was the construction and maintenance of roads and bridges as well as the provision of sanitation and medical facilities to all classes of people. Never before had medical facilities been provided for the common people on such a large scale and in such an organised form. The Muslims were the first to establish hospitals, dispensaries and medical schools in the world. "In the curative use of drugs," writes Philip K. Hitti, "some remarkable advances were made at this time by the Arabs. It was they who established the first apothecary shop, founded the earliest school of pharmacy and produced the first pharmacopoeia." Several pharmacological books were written by Arabs. The author of the first of these books was the celebrated Jabir bin Hayyan. The greatest medical theorists during mediaeval times were Zakariya Razi (Rhzes), Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Tabari and Majusi. Among these Razi and Ibn Sina were also two of the outstanding practising physicians of their time.
Muslim Contribution to Renaissance
The Christian Scholars who had studied in the institutions of Muslim Spain translated several important works of Arab writers into European languages which provided the firm ground on which the stately edifice of Western learning was raised. During the 12th and 13th centuries A.D. the process of the diffusion of Arab sciences assumed massive scale and there were several centres in southern France for the dissemination of Arabian Culture. Constantine, an African monk (1087 A.D.), who had acted as secretary to Robert Guiscard, translated several Arabic works including the theoretical part of Ali Ibn Abbas, al-Kitab aLMaliki.
The surgical part of the book was translated into Latin by John, a disciple of Consrantine. Gerard of Cremona was one of the greatest exponents of Arabian learning. He spent more than 50 years in Muslim Spain devoting himself to the pursuit of Arabic learning and translated more than ninety Arabic works including Al-IZanun, the monumental medical works of-Ibn Sina, Almagest of Ptolemy, Tasrif of Al-Zahrawi, ;rlI-Mansuri of Al-Razi and the astronomy of AlHaitham. Faraj ben Salim, the Sicilian Jew, translated in 1279, Al-Hawi, the well-known medical work of Al-Razi as well as Taqwim al-dbdan, written by Ibn Jazlah. Europe is chiefly indebted for its knowledge of Arabic medicine to Constantine, Gerard of Cremona and Faraj hen Salim whose translations paved the way for the growth of medical science in the West. Adelard of Bath, attached for a considerable time to the house of Benedictine was the greatest Arabist of England who popularised Arab learning in France and England. He brought a large number of books from Cordova, which he translated and popularised in England. Of his many translated works, the outstanding are theElements ofEuclid, the astronomical tables of Majriti (1126 A.D.), the astronomical tables of AlKhwarizmi, the astronomical tables of Abu Ma'sher Jafar and many other astronomical and mathematical treatises. Toledo, after its fall into Christian hands in 1085 A.D. became an important centre for the transmission of Arabic literary treasures to the West.. Under the guidance of Archbishop Raymond I (1126--51 A.D.) there arose a regular translation deparment in which Michael Scot, Robert Chester and Gerard of Cremona made valuable translations of important Arabic works. Michael Scot (1236) who is considered as one of the founders of Latin Averroism later became the court astrologer of Frederick II of Sicily.. He translated among other works Al-Hai'a (Bitruji's astronomy), Adstotle's De Coelo et-Mundo, with Ibn Rushd's commentary, and many Arabic works on zoology. His translations of Ibn Rushd's works greatly influenced the later European philosophers. Robert Chester made the first translation of Al-Khwarini's algebra in 1145 A.D. In 1143 he along with Hermann, the Dalmatian, completed the first translation of the Holy Quran. Gerard of Cremona was the most prolific of Toledo translators., Leorardo Fibonacci, who travelled extensively in Spain and Algeria learnt Arabic mathematical science and translated the great work of:-Al-Khwarizmi on algebra. His translated works greatly influenced later writers, hence he is considered the founder of modern mathematics in Europe.. He greatly. popularised the perfected decimal notation in Europe. Daniel de Morley who studied astronomy and mathematics in Cordova, published a number of works and lectured at the Oxford School. Theodore of Antioch translated into Latin, an Arabic work dealing with hawking, which is considered as the first modern natural history. Abraham Ben Ezra(1167 A.D.) a Jew of Toledo translated al-Beruni's commentary on Khwarizmi's Tables. John of Seville translated among others the medical and philosophical works of al-Farghani, Abu Mahsar, Al-Kindi and Al-Ghazali. Plate and Tivoli translated the astronomy of AlBattani as well as other mathematical works. Companus of Novara who had studied mathematics at Corodva taught the subject in Vienna. Alfonso, the sage had established schools at Toledo for the translation of Arabic works. Stephens of Egypt who received his education in Muslim Sicily translated the important medical work of al-Majusi in 1127 A,D.
Sicily stands next to Spain in the diffusion of Arab culture. Muslim learning was transmitted to Europe from Spain and Sicily. Even after the conquest of Sicily at the hands of the Normans in 1091A.D. the Christian rulers exercised great tolerance towards Muslims and contrary to their counterparts in Spain patronised Muslim culture. The superior culture of the conquered race had won the hearts of the conquerors, so much so that Roger, the first King of Sicily and his successors were accused of being more Muslim than Christian. Sicily, which even in the Christian era continued to be a great centre of Muslim civilization, played a vital part in the awakening of Europe. The civil administration of Sicily served as a model for Europe. It was Thomas Burn, who introduced the English fiscal system during the reign of Henry II, which he had learnt in Muslim Sicily. Sicily, with its central position served as an intermediary between the two cultures, Christian and Muslim. It provided an ideal centre for the dissemination of Arabic civilization. There was continuous intercourse between the two Norman States of England and Sicily which was instrumental in bringing many elements of Muslim culture to distant Britain. Emperor Frederick II, in spite of strong opposition from-the orthodox quarters, continued to be the greatest patron of Muslim culture in Europe. "Its great far-reaching influence reached its height when the kingdom passed into the hands of the great Italian born Emperor Frederick II," writes Robert Briffault, "whose radiant figure filled the Middle Ages with wonder. If the name of any European sovereign deserves to be specially associated with the redemption of Christendom from barbarism and ignorance it was not that of Charlemagne, the travesty of whom in the character of a civilizer is a fulsome patriotic and ecclesiastical fiction, but that of the enlighted and enthusiatic ruler(FrederickII) who adopted Saracenic civilization and did more than any sovereignto stimulate its diffusion" The Jews of Sicily played a vital role in the diffusion of Arabian learning in Europe. Of them Farragut of Sirgent, Mese of Palermo and Faraz Ben Salem are noteworthy. The first two translated the astronomical and mediCal works of Arabs into Latin. Southern Italy which was ruled by the Norman Kings of Sicily considerably assisted in diffusing Arab culture to nor them Italy and even to central Europe. A number of translators worked in western Italy, Burgundio of Pisa (1130 A.D.) translated ten books of Galen; Bonacosa, a Jew translated the colliget of Ibn Rushd at Padua and Paravisius translated the Taysir of Ibn Johral at Venice. Due to a lack of appropriate wards, Arabic technical words and scientific terms were adopted in Latin. Thus the Arabic words alchemy, alcohol, azure, cipher, elixir (al-Taksir) were introduced into the vocabulary of Europe and are still in use.
The work of translating Arabic works continued unabated till the middle of the 17th century A.D. Great attention was paid to the translation of Arabic chemical works. Andrea Alphago of Baluno of Italy (1520 A.D.) translated the biographical dictionary of Ibn Kifti as well as some of the important works of Galen, Ibn Sina and Ibn Rushd. A work of Abdur Rahman on music and the Pyramids was rendered into Latinby Piyare Vattier of Orleans in 1664 A.D.
The period of translation was followed by a period when Arabian knowledge was systematised, assimilated and the ground prepared for the creative works which brought about the renaissance in Europe. The systematisers arranged the vast material obtained through Arabian sources and paved the way for the intellectual growth of Europe. Among the foremost systematisers were Alexander of Halle (1245 A.D.), Robert Grosseteste (1255 A.D.), St. Thomas Acquinas (1225-75 A.D.) Albertus Magnus (1193-1290 A.D.)., Roger Bacon (1214-94 A.D.), Amold of Villanova (1255-1320A.D.), and Peter of Abano (1250-1320 A.D.). "The impulse of this intellectual activity", writes Campbell, "was derived in the main from the Arabian writers and Albertus Magnus and Rager Bacon were the eminent types of Arabo-Scholastics of the period who derived the basis of their learning from Arabian sources."
Roger Bacon (1214-94 A.D.) is considered the father of the European renaissance. He was educated by Jewish teachers in the Oxford School which was established, for the propagation of Muslim science by Jews who had been driven out of Spain by the Christians and had reached England along with William of Normandy. According to M. N.. Roy,"Roger Bacon was a disciple of Arabs".. Roger Bacon, who in the West is known as the originator of the experimental method in Europe had himself received his training from the pupils of Spanish Moors and had learnt everything from Muslim sources, The writer of the article "Roger Bacon" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica claims that it is beyond all doubt! that Rager Bacon was profoundry versed in Arabian learning and derived from it many of the germs of his philosophy." The influence of Ibn Haitham (Alhazen) on Roger Bacon is clearly visible in his works. Europe was rather slow to recognise the Islamic origin of her much advertised scientific (experimental) method. Writing in the Making of HumaaitY, R. Briffault admits that "It was under their successors at the Oxford School that Roger Bacon learned Arabic and Arabic science.
Neither Rager Bacon nor his later namesake has any title to be credited with having introduced the experimental method. Roger Bacon was no more than one of the apostles of Muslim science and method to Christian Europe; and he never wearied of declaring that the knowledge of Arabic and Arabic science was for his contemporaries the only way to true knowledge". As a reward for his love of Arabic science, Roger Bacon was thrown into prison as a sorcerer and he died shortly after his release from 10 years imprisonment.
Influence on the West
The Muslims, who were pioneers in almost all branches of learning led the West in diverse spheres Of mediaeval thought. "The mission of mankind was accomplished by Muslims", writes George Sarton, The greatest philosopher, Al-Farabi was a Muslim the greatest mathematicians, Abul Kamil and Ibrahim Ibn Sina were Muslims; the greatest geographer and encyclopaedist, al-Musudi was a Muslim; the greatest historian, Al-Tabari was still a Muslim".
The influence of the Muslims could be traced in almost all spheres of life in the Mediaeval West including sciences and arts, commerce and industry, music and painting. The brightest luminaries of the Mediaeval times were Jabir, Kindi, Jahiz and Baytar in sciences; Zakariya Razi, Ibn Sinaand Zahrawi in medical science; Khwarizmi, Omar Khayyam, Abul Wafa and Nasiruddin Toosi in mathematics and astrbnomy; Farabi, Ibn Sina, Ghazali, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Arabi and Fakhruddin Razi in philosophy; Tabari, Ibn Miskawayh, Ibn Athir and Ibn Khaldun in history; Masudi, Idrisi and Ibn Hauqal in geography; Farabi, Zalzal, Ziryab and Ibrahim Mausili in music; Behzad, Maani and Raza Abbasi in painting. They have left behind on the pages of history the imprint of their genius in the respective branches of their activity. As already stated in detail in previous chapters a number of their works served as standard text books both in the West as well in the East till the beginning of the 18th century A.D.
The Arabs were the real originators of sciences in the world. Discarding the speculative method of the Greeks, they based their scientific research on observation and experiment.which gave birth to experimental method. This experimental method introduced by the Arabs was in fact, responsible for rapid advancement of science during the mediaeval times. Jabir, the father of modern chemistry was the greatest chemical scientist of the mediaeval times whose writings influenced the course of Europeam alchemy and chemistry. The Kilab Al-Haywan written by Jahiz is an invaluable book on zoology containing germs of, later theories on evolution, adoptation and animal psychology. Ibn al-Baytar is universally acknowledged as the most eminent botanist of Mediaeval times. According to the Historians' History, it was from Ibn al-Haitham's Twilight that the illustrious Kepler took his ideas of atmospheric refraction and "it may be that Newton himself owes to the Arabs, rather than to the apple in his orchard at Woolsthorpe the first apperception of the system of the universe, for Muhammad Ben Musa seems, when writing his books on the movements of the celestial bodies and on the Force of Attraction, to have had an inkling of the great law of general harmony."
In medical science Al-Razi's AI-Hawi (Continens) in 20 volumes and Al-JudariwalHasbah (a book dealing with small-pox) which ran into more than fifty editions during 1498--1866; Ibn Sina's (Avicenna's) AI-IZanunFi Tibb (Canon) published 36 times and surgeon Zahrawi's al-Tasrif were recognised as the highest authority on medicine during the mediaeval era. Avicenna's influence on European medicine has been overwhelming.
In mathematics and astronomy, the works on algebra written by Khwarizmi and Omar Khayyam, books on geometry and trigonometryleft behind by Abul Wafa, Nasiruddin Toosi and the treatises on astronomy by Khwarizmi, Omar Khayyam, Al-Beruni and Nasiruddin Toosi are the most outstanding contributions to these sciences during the middle ages. The translation of Khwariumi's algebra marked the beginning of European algebra. The introduction of zero to arithmetic by the Arabs was a highly beneficial step towards the simplification of arithmetic. The Muslims had specialised in historiography and political science which were their favourite subjects. Tabari, the father of Arabian historiography is considered as one of the greatest historians of the mediaeval era, who has influenced the art of writing history both in the East and the West. Ibn Khaldun, the founder of the science of sociology has the unique distinction of treating history as a science by supporting his facts with reasoning. More than any historian, Ibn Khaldun has influenced the modern thought in historiography, politics, sociologl and political economy.
Among the eminent travellers, explorers and navigators who brought the distant parts of-Mediaeval world closer through their discoveries and writings are Ibn Batuta, Masudi, Beruni, Ibn Hauqal, Moqaddasi, Sulaiman Al-Mahiri and Ibn Majid, They also paved the way for the growth of Arabian commerce which was carried on with distant parts of the known world both through land and sea routes. The products of the highly developed industries in Muslim countries found good market throughout the world.
In fine arts and music too, Muslim artists influenced their European counterparts and the musicians Farabi, Ishaq Mausili, Zalzal and Ziryab; the paihters Maani and Behzad were the greatest figures of their time in the respective spheres of theirarts. Muslims had developed a distinctive style of their own in architecture and built some of the most magnificent and beautiful buildings in the world including Alhambra, the Grand Mosque of Cordova in Spain, mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, the grand mosque of Isfahan and the Taj Mahal of Agra. These are even now recognised as the architectural wonders of the world.
Thus the Muslims kept aloft the candle of civilization during the Mediaeval era and their contributions to the advancement of human progress provided the necessary link between the ancient and modern civilizations. The Islamic universities of Nizamiyah and Mustansariya at Baghdad, the Al-Azhar of Cairo, and the universities of Cordova and Salerno diffused knowledge to students composed of all communities who flocked to these seats of learning from distant parts of the world including Europe.
The Four Factors
The four factors, which are generally recognised by European Historians as the basis of Western Renaissance are (1) The recovery of Greek Classics, (2) The diminution of ecclesiastical authority, (3) The discovery of the New World and (4) The introduction of the Printing Press. But curiously enough these factors are more or less resulted from the impact of Islamic culture with the west. The Islamic influence may easily be trace in the birth and growth of these factors which are said to have brought about the renaissance in Europe.
As regards the Greek Classics, it is universally admitted both in the East and the West that it were the Arabs who patronised and saved them from total extinction. Hence the Greek classics existed in Arabic version only, which were later translated by the Christian scholars into European languages The Historians History admits, "They (Arabs) merit eternal gratitude for having been the preserver of the learning of Greeks and Hindus when those people were no longer preducing anything and Europe was still too ignorant to undertake the charge of the precious Depot. Efface the Arabs from history and the Renaissance of letters will be retarded in Europe by several centuries''. Writing in the History of Medicine in the Middle Ages, Max Kahn observes, "The tolerance of Arabs was the saving grace of civilization. They relit the lamp of learning which had been extinguished in Europe, and the light of Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen illuminated the mosques and cloisters of infidels". According to Dr. F. J. C. Hearnshaw, writer of the Chapter on "European Life and Manners" in Vol. 6 of the Universal History of the World, "Christian students repaired to Islamic schools to learn the wisdom of the ancients and to' gain the secrets of those arts and crafts which made Muhammedan Spain famous throughout the world.. It was by way of Spain that the long lost works of Aristotle reached Western Christendom, to revolutionise scholastic Philosophy and Theology." According to Stanley Lane-Poole "What mediaeval Europe knew of Greek Philosophy, Mathematics, Chemistry, Astronomy and Medicine was learned principally through Latin translations. from Arabic treatises which held their places in the schools of Europe down to the sixteenth and even well into the seventeenth century." (Chapter on "Golden Age of Arab Culture" in Vol. IV. of the Universal History of the World).
The second factor namely the diminution of religious authority in the Christian authority was caused by Reformation and Crusades. Martin Luther, who was the founder of Reformation was so much influenced by Islamic culture that he was accused of being a Muhammadan by the orthodox Christians. The Crusaders, bailing from different parts of Christian Europe came in direct contact with Muslims in the Holy Land and were deeply influenced by the Islamic culture. On return they introduced those reforms to their life which greatly weakened the hold of the Church on the common Christian. Dr. B. W. Stevenson says in the Chapter on "The Spirit and Influence of the Crusades" in Volume 3 of The Universal History of the World (7 Vols., London, 1928) : "The learning and art and science of the East, its public services and methods of government, its highly developed industries and the superior luxury and comfort of the domestic life of its upper classes, exerted a powerful and far-reaching influence upon Europe in the Crusading period. Another historian of the Crusades, Dr. Henry Elmer Barnes, says in Vol. I. of his History of Western Civilisation "The Westerners learned many Muslim and Oriental ways and developed a taste for the luxuries of the region. All this promoted a demand for Eastern goods and accelerated the growth of commerce. The Italians, who had acted as transporting agents for the Crusaders, took full advantage of their opportunities to build up trading relations with the East. Travel was promoted, and the explorations of Marco Polo and others followed on the heels of the Crusaders. This still further encouraged trade between Europe and the Orient. The revived trade promoted the rise of towns and a more progressive element in European life. The science and culture of the Muslims were brought back to Europe and helped to create the remarkable intellectual revival of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries"
The third factor namely the discovery of America was actually the outcome of Arab efforts. The latest researches carried on by Dr. Jeffrey, the celebrated anthropologist of South Africa has proved that Arabs discovered America five centuries ahead of C. Columbus.
The fourth factor namely the invention of the Printing Press is also indirectly connected with the introduction and large scale production of paper in Europe by the Arabs. Without paper there would have been no Printing Press.
Christians & Violence
Wooldridge and other redneck evangelicals constantly equate Islam with violence, however, these imbeciles seem to forget about Christians violent history involving massacres and genocide.
The Crusades
For starters, the Crusade has been an ugly bloody stain on Christians' hands forever. They have not only murdered innocent women and children but also taking their heads and impaling them on their pikes was the entertainment Christian crusaders enjoyed.
Moreover, once a Muslim city was conquered Christian crusaders would execute everyone irrespective of their age or gender. Jews when caught in their synagogues were burned alive.
The religious authority of Christians considered the bloodshed as glory. In his report of the conquest of Jerusalem , Chronicler Raymond of Aguilers wrote that:
"It was a just and marvelous judgment of God, that this place [the temple of Solomon] should be filled with the blood of the unbelievers." St. Bernard announced before the Second Crusade that "The Christian glories in the death of a pagan, because thereby Christ himself is glorified."
The Chronicler considered slaughters as merciful. For example when the Crusaders broke into Antioch and the Muslim army abandoned the fight, the crusaders found Muslims women, wives of Muslim soldiers in camp. Chronicler Fulcher of Chartres happily recorded for posterity that
"...the Franks did nothing evil to them [the women] except pierce their bellies with their lances."
So this is Christian mercy and beasts like Wooldridge consider them their champions.
Saint Augustine's cognite intrare ("lead them in"-i.e. "force them to convert").
In fact the Qur'an says the exact opposite: There is no compulsion in religion ( 2:256 ).
Augustine's frightening idea that all must be compelled to "conform" to the "true Christian faith" has unleashed centuries of unparalleled bloodshed.
Tragically, the crusaders had killed both Muslims and Christian Arabs and would say:
"Kill them all, God will know his own."
Incidentally, the Christians slaughtered many in Europe as well. Two thirds of the Christian population of Europe was slaughtered by Christians
Crusaders massacred tens of thousands of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. In contrast, when:
in 1187 CE, Salahuddin finally conquered Jerusalem. However, his conquest was not like what the crusaders had done in 1099 CE. Not one Christian was harmed. All were allowed to stay or leave the city at their own will. They were also allowed to take their weapons and property with them. Salahuddin even arranged for their travelling. The tribute that was asked from the Christians if they wanted to leave the city was ten gold coins per man, five gold coins per woman, and one gold coin per child. However, Salahuddin and his brother themselves paid the tribute for about 17,000 people. In addition, a gate of the city was allocated for the many poor soldiers who could not pay the tribute. They were allowed to leave the city without paying anything. Many crusaders had been arrested during the war. When their wives, sisters, or mothers appealed for their release, they were all released. Many people who were poor were given money for travelling expenses. In addition, they were provided with mules to carry their loads.
This is the difference between Islam and Christianity.
And the dignity of a Muslim is much more superior than that of a Christian as it is evident in the following quote in the conquest of Jerusalem:
Many crusaders that left to Christian states were treated cruelly by the rulers there. For example, many crusaders left to Antioch, the nearest Christian city from Jerusalem. There the ruler, Prince Bohemond, not only denied them hospitality, but stripped them. They were forced to come back to Muslim lands, where they were treated with great sympathy and kindness. In addition, out of respect for the Christians' feelings, Salahuddin did not enter the city until all those who wished to leave had left.
Salahuddin then conquered Antioch and its surrounding cities. He also conquered Karak, the same place from where Reginald de Chatillon used to attack Muslim caravans.
The abomination called slavery cost 10 million lives at the least. Christians championed the institution of slavery and the abuse of human beings. Unlike Christians, the Holy Koran orders Muslims the following in regards to slavery:
Qur'an: Surah 90 Al-Balad (The City)
Nay, I swear by this city... We verily have created man in an atmosphere... But he hath not attempted the Ascent, Ah, what will convey unto thee what the Ascent is! It is to free a slave, And to feed in the day of hunger, An orphan near of kin, Or some poor wretch in misery. And to be of those who believe and exhort one another to perseverance and exhort one another to pity.
Marry: Slaves and Maid Servants; Emancipation
Qur'an 24:27-34 Surah An-Nur (Light)
Tell the believing men... And tell the believing women... And marry such of you as are solitary and the pious of your slaves and maid servants. If they be poor; Allah will enrich them of His bounty. Allah is of ample means, Aware. And let those who cannot find a match keep chaste till Allah give them independence by His grace. And such of your slaves as seek a writing of emancipation, write it for them if ye are aware of aught of good in them, and bestow upon them of the wealth of Allah which He hath bestowed upon you. Force not your slave girls to whoredom that ye may seek enjoyment of the life of the world, if they would preserve their chastity. And if one force them, then (unto them), after their compulsion, Lo! Allah will be Forgiving, Merciful...
Free Slaves
Qur'an 2:177 Surah Al-Baqarah (The Cow)
It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the East and the West; but righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Scripture and the Prophets; and giveth his wealth, for love of Him, to kinsfolk and to orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and to those who ask, and to set slaves free; and observeth proper worship and payeth the poor due. And those who keep their treaty when they make one, and the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such are they who are sincere. Such are the God fearing.
This is Islam that advocates and advocated freedom for slaves, while you Christians put human beings into bondage and slaughtered their children and elderly. Another of your civilized garbage: Beast Wooldridge.
Genocide of Native Americans: Another Christian Mercy
Native Americans were slaughtered and exterminated by the Christian Europeans. The crime was simply to be non-European and possessing a land that the European Christians wanted for themselves.
Estimates for the number of Native Americans slaughtered by the Europeans in North, Central and South America run as high as 20 million within three generations.
How about this Wooldridge and stupidity.
Colonial Conquest and World Wars
In the 20th century alone, Christians have left a bloody mark on the human race:
A conservative estimate puts the total number of brutal deaths in the 20th century at more than 250 million. Of these, Muslims are responsible for less than 10 million deaths. Christians, or those coming from Christian backgrounds account for more than 200 million of these! The greatest death totals come from World War I (about 20 million, at least 90 % of which were inflicted by "Christians") and World War II ( 90 million, at least 50% of which were inflicted by "Christians," the majority of the rest occurring in the Far East). Given this grim history, it appears that we Europeans must all come to grips with the fact that Islamic civilization has actually been incomparably less brutal than Christian civilization.
Did the Holocaust of over 6 million Jews occur out of the background of a Muslim Civilization?
In the 20th century alone Christians have murdered 20 times more civilians than Muslims have in their history of Islamic civilization.
In Rwanda, 900,000 people were slaughtered by Christians In Bosnia, 1992-1995, The genocide of over 300,000 Muslims and systematic rape of over 100,000 Muslim women by Christian Serbs
Afghanistan & Iraq
Wooldridge talks about 911 and fort dix etc, but have news for him. Muslims had nothing to do with 911, your own Christians and allies perpetrated 911.
However, to deflect attention from their own crimes, your Christian government had to invade Afghanistan killing more than 40,000 civilians and using massive amount of uranium weapons on that country. The use of uranium weapons condemned that nation forever.
In Iraq, in the first Gulf War, the US Christians have killed more than 100,000 Iraqis. Subsequent sanctions cost the lives of 1.3 million Iraqi civilians.
In the second Gulf War, your Christian country-Zionist Pigs-have murdered more than 1 million civilians.
How about the Abu Ghraib tortures or torture killing of Afghan civilians in Bagram?
So, Wooldridge, when Muslims target your country, every sane and rational human being will understand that they are reacting to the mass murder and genocide committed by the US and her allies in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Dick Fojut
Hateful Quotes - Islamic AND Talmudic
Frosty, I'm assuming you DID write "Fort Dix Six, 911 And Muslims" that was posted recently on -
I've appreciated your past and present courageous efforts to close our borders from additional millions of aliens.
But I was totally surprised by your above incredible rant, totally DEMONIZING the religion of ISLAM itself and ALL "MUSLIMS," not only assigning "Muslims" blame for ALL (alleged) past "terror" attacks, but warning that these "MUSLIMS" are subversively trying to conquer America - and the world! And already have done so to a great degree! Like Sean Hannity on radio, you've also alleged that "Muslims" will kill ALL of us who refuse to convert to Islam!
As foundation "evidence" to support your blanket demonization of Islam and Muslims, in your "Fort Dix Six, 911 And Muslims" article, you (selectively) quoted some truly hateful passages (apparently) from the Quoran or Islamic writings (about which one Islamic writer commenting to your article, called lies).
Frosty, aren't you being UNFAIR, selecting hateful passages from Islamic writings - without quoting similar hateful passages from the Jewish TALMUD?
Are you completely unaware that equally - and even more hateful - passages can be found in the Talmud (and other Jewish literature including The Jewish Encyclopedia), such as the following, found in an article about KOL NIDRE...
The Jewish Encyclopedia gives to Jesus, among other names, the pseudonym of Balaam. And, using that name here is what is says concerning His death:
"In the process of killing Balaam, all four legal methods of execution: stoning, burning, decapitating and strangling were employed (Sanhedrin 1.c.). He met his death at the age of thirty-three; and it is stated that he had no portion of the world to come (Sanhedrin x2:90a)... ."
The basic Talmudic doctrine is more than a Master Race Complex. It is an Only Race Concept. According to the Talmud the goyim (non-Jews) rank as animals. They have no property rights, no legal rights under any code whatsoever. Now can you see why the so-called Jews claim there is only one race of man? But they don't really want you to know what that means. We are merely their "stupid goy cattle." The Golden Rule of the Talmud is "milk the goyim, but do not get caught." Rabbi ben Yohai's edict is: "Even the best among the Gentiles deserves to be killed." (Abodan Zarah 26b).
Regarding and Gentile property rights, their possessions are "like unclaimed land in the desert." (Baba Bathra 54b).
"With respect to robbery: if one stole or robbed or seized a beautiful woman, or committed similar offenses, if these were perpetrated by one Gentile against another, the theft, etc., must not be kept, and likewise the theft from an Israelite by a gentile, but theft from a Gentile by an Israelite may be retained." (Sanhedrin 57a).
Here are further expressions of "brotherhood." Kosher-style, straight from the Talmud and its supplement, the Cabala:
Kethoboth 3b: "The seed (child) of a Christian is of no more value than that of a beast."
Baba Kama 113a: "A Jew may lie and perjure to condemn a Christian. b. "The name of God is not profaned when lying to Christians."
Hikkoth Akum X 1: "Do not save Christians in danger of death."
Kohar I 160a: "Jews must always try to deceive Christians."
Zohar I 25b: "Those who do good to Christians will never rise from the dead."
Zohar II 43a: "Extermination of Christians is a necessary sacrifice."
Zohar II 64b: "The Christian birthrate must be materially diminished."
Frosty, you support your warning to us all to FEAR Islam and Muslims, based on the hateful statements you selected from Islamic writings. In fairness, shouldn't you also be warning us to FEAR all Jews (Talmudists) who obey the Baylonian Talmud and the hateful "directives" listed just above?



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