We Told You - Infectious
Prions In Saliva And
Blood Of CWD Deer

From Patricia Doyle, PhD

Hello, Jeff -
So, what else is new. We have been talking about this for eons. Jeff Rense and Patty Doyle knew then what the scientists have just now proven. Maybe they weren't looking very hard before...
How many people became infected eating deer meat during all this time? Yet, I know that people will continue to eat deer and continue to cast aside our warnings. Now they must cast aside scientific research, too. And most they probably will.
Infectious Prions In The Saliva And Blood
Of Deer With Chronic Wasting Disease (Mad Cow)
Candace K. Mathiason,1 Jenny G. Powers,3 Sallie J. Dahmes,4 David A. Osborn,5 Karl V. Miller,5
Robert J. Warren,5 Gary L. Mason,1 Sheila A. Hays,1 Jeanette Hayes-Klug,1 Davis M. Seelig,1
Margaret A. Wild,3 Lisa L. Wolfe,6 Terry R. Spraker,1,2 Michael W. Miller,6 Christina J. Sigurdson,1
Glenn C. Telling,7 Edward A. Hoover1*
A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-nai¨ve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.
Deer cohorts 1 (blood), 2 (saliva), and 3 (urine and feces) were electively euthanized at 18 months pi to permit whole-body examination for PrPCWD. The greatest scrutiny was directed toward those tissues previously established to have highest frequency of PrPCWD deposition in infected deer and generally regarded as the most sensitive indicators of infection" medulla oblongata and other brainstem regions, tonsil, and retropharyngeal lymph node. We found unequivocal evidence of PrPCWD in brain and lymphoid tissue of all six tonsil biopsy positive deer in cohorts 1 (blood) and 2 (saliva), whereas all deer in cohorts 3 and 5 were negative for PrPCWD in all tissues (Table 2 and Figs. 1 and 2).
The transmission of CWD by a single blood transfusion from two symptomatic and one asymptomatic CWDþ donor is important in at least three contexts: (i) It reinforces that no tissue from CWD-infected cervids can be considered free of prion infectivity; (ii) it poses the possibility of hematogenous spread of CWD, such as through insects; and (iii) it provides a basis for seeking in vitro assays sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate PrPCWD or alternate prion protein conformers in blood"one of the grails of prion biology and epidemiology. The identification of blood-borne prion transmission has been sought before with mixed results (911). Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie have been transmitted to naBve sheep through the transfer of 500 ml of blood or buffy coat white blood cells from infected sheep (12, 13). In addition, limited but compelling evidence argues for the transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) through blood from asymptomatic donors (1416). Even in sporadic CJD, PrPres has been found in periph- eral organs of some patients (17).
The present work helps establish that prion diseases can be transmitted through blood. The presence of infectious CWD prions in saliva may explain the facile transmission of CWD. Cervid-to-cervid interactions (SOM text), especially in high density and captive situations, would be expected to facilitate salivary crosscontact (11, 18, 19). Salivary dissemination of prions may not be limited to CWD. Proteaseresistant prion protein has been demonstrated in the oral mucosa, taste buds, lingual epithelium, vomeronasal organ, and olfactory mucosa of hamsters infected with transmissible mink encephalopathy (19) and ferrets infected with CWD (20). Although no instance of CWD transmission to humans has been detected, the present results emphasize the prudence of using impervious gloves during contact with saliva or blood of cervids that may be CWD-infected. Environmental contamination by excreta from infected cervids has traditionally seemed the most plausible explanation for the dissemination of CWD (21). However, we could not detect PrPCWD in cohort 3 deer inoculated repeatedly with urine and feces from CWDþ deer and examined up to 18 months pi (Table 2).
There are several reasons to view this negative finding cautiously, including small sample size, elective preclinical termination, and potential variation in individual susceptibility that may be associated with the 96 G/S polymorphism in the PRNP gene (7, 22). Although no genotype of white-tailed deer is resistant to CWD infection, PRNP genotypes S/S or G/S at codon 96 appear to have reduced susceptibility manifest by longer survival (7). Both deer in cohort 3 (urine and feces) were subsequently shown to be of the PRNP 96 G/S genotype. Thus, it is possible, although we think unlikely, that these deer had a prolonged incubation period (918 months pi) before the amplification of PrPCWD became detectable in tissues. Recent studies have shown that PrPres is poorly preserved after incubation with intestinal or fecal content (23, 24). Further research using cervid and surrogate cervid PrP transgenic mice (25) are indicated to continue to address the presence of infectious CWD prions in excreta of CWDþ deer and to provide a more substantial basis for reconsideration of the assumption that excreta are the chief vehicle for CWDdissemination and transmission.
The results reported here provide a plausible basis for the efficient transmission of CWD in nature. We demonstrate that blood and saliva in particular are able to transmit CWD to naBve deer and produce incubation periods consistent with those observed in naturally acquired infections (3, 26). The time from exposure to first detection of PrPCWD by tonsil biopsy was variable"as short as 3 months but as long as 18 months (likely underestimates due to sampling frequency). The results also reinforce a cautious view of the exposure risk presented by body fluids, excreta, and all tissues from CWDþ cervids. ...
CWD AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS i.e. saliva, fecal shedding and fecal-oral transmission is likely
Subject: [Docket No. FSIS-2006-0011] FSIS Harvard Risk Assessment of Bovine
Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
[Docket No. 03-025IFA] FSIS Prohibition of the Use of Specified Risk
Materials for Human Food and Requirement for the Disposition of
Non-Ambulatory Disabled Cattle
From Terry S. Singeltary
Patricia A. Doyle DVM, PhD
Bus Admin, Tropical Agricultural Economics
Univ of West Indies
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Zhan le Devlesa tai sastimasa
Go with God and in Good Health



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