- "Exactly what happens and why these kind of structures
are formed, we don't know". -- Dan Kiselman, Royal Swedish Academy
of Sciences, Stockholm.
- "Anomalous sunspot behavior continues to baffle
solar physicists. Even the cause of sunspots remains elusive, and the more
detailed pictures only seem to push the answers farther down the path".
-- Wallace Thornhill, Holoscience.com
- In the extreme close-up photograph of a sunspot above,
we see the rope-like filaments of the penumbra, or margins of the sunspot.
For many years solar physicists have claimed that these filaments were
convection cells, or rapidly rising columns of heated gases. But the higher-resolution
details shown here, including the twin bridges across the sunspot, do not
support traditional theory. All of the structure shown is consistent with
the principle of anode tufting, a plasma discharge effect expected of a
positively charged electric Sun. Link:
- High-resolution images of the penumbra filaments have
revealed the distinctive characteristics of tornado-like charge vortices.
By giving us a peek beneath the tops of the rotating discharge columns,
sunspots enable us to view directly the columns' explosive rise from below,
as they heat and project plasma upward into the bright photospheric granules.
For conventional theory, sunspot penumbrae remain a mystery: the standard
solar model neither requires nor predicts such phenomena. In the electric
model they ARE predictable. Electric discharges in plasma take the form
of long, thin and twisting filaments. Because they are tornadic funnels
of glowing plasma, they will appear darker in their centers, exactly as
seen in the recent pictures. Convection cells would appear darker on their
- The electric explanation of sunspots, like that of the
penumbra, is rooted in the observed behavior of plasma discharge. In laboratory
experiments, a torus forms above the equator of a positively charged sphere.
Discharges then fly between the torus and the mid- to low-latitudes of
the sphere. In the electric model, the Sun is the positively charged focal
point of an electric field. And now we know that the Sun is indeed surrounded
by an equatorial torus, as seen in the polar UV image of the Sun here:
- Sunspots are the direct evidence that electric discharges
punch holes in the photosphere to deliver current directly to lower depths,
exposing a view of the cooler interior. Nothing ever observed on the Sun
supports the idea of heat transfer from the core, where standard theory
places the nuclear fusion "furnace". In the electric model, what
nuclear fusion that does occur is located where the most energetic events
occur, in the fierce electric tornadoes.
- In the laboratory experiments that produce the equatorial
torus, the observed discharging to the positively charged sphere migrates
latitudinally as the power input varies. The higher power produces maximum
activity near the equator. The same thing occurs on the Sun in the latitudinal
migration of sunspots in relation to the total energetic output of the
- Standard theory will not allow that the cooler lower
region revealed by sunspots means a cooler interior of the Sun. So astrophysicists
have surmised that the sunspots are the result of focused magnetic fields
interfering with heat transport, or convection. But they have confused
electrical and magnetic effects. Investigation has shown that sunspots
having the same magnetic polarity attract each other. But the poles of
magnets repel. But electric currents (the SOURCE of magnetic fields), DO
attract each other, while maintaining their integrity through repulsion
at extremely close distances. In fact, we see this effect when sunspots
"merge". Though conjoined, they retain their independent structure,
just as currents do in plasma.
- Standard models offer no coherent explanation for the
approximate eleven-year sunspot cycle. There is no annual "clock"
in an isolated thermonuclear explosion. Though a connection to the period
of Jupiter is possible, perhaps even likely in terms of solar system circuitry,
the remote gravitational effects of Jupiter on the Sun cannot compare to
the energetic events associated with the sunspot cycle. In the electrical
model the sunspot cycle is most likely a result a fluctuations in the electrical
power supply from the local arm of our galaxy, the Milky Way, as the varying
current density and magnetic fields of huge Birkeland current filaments
slowly rotate past our solar system.
- See also: "Projecting Nucelar Fusion onto the Sun"
- "Electric Stars"