Ohio Records First Human
WNV Case Of 2004

From Patricia Doyle, PhD

From Patricia Doyle, PhD
[1] Date: Mon 12 Apr 2004 From: ProMED-mail <> Source: Ohio Department of Health, News, press release, Fri 9 Apr 2004 [edited]
Ohio: 1st Probable Human Case of West Nile Virus Infection in 2004
The Ohio Department of Health (ODH) today announced its 1st probable case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in 2004. The patient is a 79-year-old male from Scioto County. "With warm weather in recent weeks, mosquitoes have become active," said ODH Director J. Nick Baird, M.D. "Today's development should remind us all of the importance of taking personal protection measures and working to eliminate mosquito breeding sites on and around our properties."
In 2003, Ohio reported 108 probable and confirmed human cases of WNV and 8 WNV-related deaths; the 1st human case was reported on 18 Jul 2003. In 2002, Ohio reported 441 human cases and 31 deaths. Human WNV cases typically do not appear until late summer in Ohio. ODH and the local health authorities are working to determine where the patient may have been exposed to the virus.
"West Nile virus and other vector-borne illnesses are preventable," Baird said. "By taking some simple steps, you can help ensure that you and your loved ones remain healthy and safe when outside this spring and summer." The tick and mosquito season in Ohio generally runs from April through September. 4.pdf
-- ProMED-mail <>
***** [2] Date: 12 Apr 2004 From: ProMED-mail <> Source: Telegraph Forum [edited]
West Nile Virus Testing Begins Monday
Another season of West Nile Virus monitoring begins Monday [12 Apr 2004], according to Crawford County General Health District Environmental Health Director Jackie Ward, R.S. This is the date the Ohio Department of Health will start allowing local health departments to submit dead birds for testing of the virus.
This year [2004], bird testing is open to all song birds and crows. Once 2 positive birds are found in the same county, the bird testing will stop and other preventative measures will begin. It is important that county residents contact the Crawford County General Health District at 419-562-5871 to report dead birds.
Residents in Galion and Crestline should contact the Galion City Health Department at 419-468-1075. Information should include the type of bird found and the location. Wear gloves when handling a dead bird and place the creature in a plastic bag and then into another plastic bag. Put it on ice to prevent it from decomposing. If the bird has been dead longer than 48 hours or shows signs of decomposition, use the above information on handling the bird and then dispose of it with your normal garbage.
The health district also will set out mosquito traps to catch mosquitoes for testing.
To protect yourself and your family, Ward recommends the following:
Try to avoid the peak exposure time, which is at dusk.
Wear light-colored clothing with long sleeves & long pants when you cannot avoid being exposed to mosquitoes.
Use repellents carefully. More is not necessarily better, so read the product label instructions and follow their recommendations. Certain repellents may not be appropriate for younger children.
Be sure the screens in your house are 16-mesh or finer.
Mosquitoes need standing water to breed, so make sure there is no stagnant water anywhere around your home. Empty bird baths at least once a week. Any other containers that hold water should be emptied and stored so that they will no longer hold water.
Remove, cover or store unused tires inside. If you are not using the tires, take them to a recycling center.
If you have a septic system, make sure that it is working properly and not causing wet areas in the yard that would allow mosquitoes to breed.
Look around your neighborhood for streams or roadside ditches that aren't flowing. Contact the appropriate individuals to try and have the matter corrected. alnews/209914.html
*************** Date: Mon 12 Apr 2004 From: Luz Alba Fornells <> Source: Jornal Estadao, Mon 12 Apr 2004 [in Portuguese, summarized by Mod.JW; edited]
Brazil: Deaths Associated with Suspected Hepatitis D Virus Infection
At least 20 Marubo indians have died from suspected hepatitis delta virus infection in the Javari Valley, extreme west of Amazonas state. The disease also threatens the Matise, Canamari, and Corubo tribes.
2 boatloads of health personnel, including 4 doctors, departed Sun 11 Apr 2004 from Tabatinga, on the frontier of Brazil with Peru and Colombia, to take medical aid to the tribes along the Solimoes [Upper Amazon], Javali, Itaquai, and Itui rivers. The boat is equipped with ultrasound and digital x-ray machines, and will send test results by satellite for analysis in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina state. They expect to examine 1000 Amerindians in the indian reserve of the Javali Valley, which at 8.5 million hectares is the size of Portugal. -- Luz Alba Fornells <>
[Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective satellite virus that is dependent on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its replication. HDV infection can be acquired either as a co-infection with HBV or as a superinfection of persons with chronic HBV infection. Persons with HBV/HDV co-infection may have more severe acute disease and a higher risk of fulminant hepatitis (2-20 percent) compared with those infected with HBV alone; however, chronic HBV infection appears to occur less frequently in individuals with HBV/HDV co- infection.
Chronic HBV carriers who acquire HDV superinfection usually develop chronic HDV infection. In long-term studies of chronic HBV carriers with HDV superinfection, 70-80 percent have developed evidence of chronic liver diseases with cirrhosis, compared with 15- 30 percent of patients with chronic HBV infection alone. Control of HBV infection using HBV vaccine would simultaneously eradicate any hepatitis D virus, since it is dependent on HBV for its replication.
Studies performed over the past 35 years on communities in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela have shown a high endemicity of HBV infection all over the region, which is frequently associated with a high prevalence of infection by hepatitis D virus among chronic HBV carriers. Circulation of both agents occurs mainly by horizontal virus transmission during childhood, through mechanisms that are not fully understood. 3 genotypes of hepatitis D virus are recognized, genotype III being restricted to the Amazon basin and South America.
Disease related to HDV infection in these outbreaks has been very severe, with rapid progression to fulminant hepatitis and case-fatality rates of 10-20 percent. The cause of the atypical course of HDV infection in these populations is unknown. The modes of HDV transmission are similar to those for HBV, with percutaneous exposures the most efficient. Sexual transmission of HDV is less efficient than for HBV. Perinatal HDV transmission is rare. The serologic course of HDV infection varies depending on whether the virus is acquired as a co-infection with HBV or as a superinfection of a person with chronic HBV infection. In most persons with HBV/HDV co-infection, both IgM antibody to HDV (anti-HDV) and IgG anti-HDV are detectable during the course of infection. However, in about 15 percent of patients, the only evidence of HDV infection may be the detection of either IgM anti-HDV alone during the early acute period of illness or IgG anti-HDV alone during convalescence. Anti-HDV generally declines to sub-detectable levels after the infection resolves, and there is no serologic marker that persists to indicate that the patient was ever infected with HDV. Hepatitis Delta antigen (HDAg) can be detected in serum in only about 25 percent of patients with HBV-HDV co- infection.
When HDAg is detectable it generally disappears as HBsAg disappears, and most patients do not develop chronic infection. - Mod.CP]
Patricia A. Doyle, PhD Please visit my "Emerging Diseases" message board at: Zhan le Devlesa tai sastimasa Go with God and in Good Health



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