UFO Incident & Trace Analysis
Golabki, Poland - 1998

Nancy Talbott

Date of Report: January 30, 2004
Event Location: Field in front of Kuss farmhouse - Golabki, Poland
Date/Time Occurred: July or early August, 1998 - approximately 2 a.m.
Witness: Mrs. Evelina Kuss, interviewed July 19, 2003
Interviewed By: Nancy Talbott (follow-up of original interview by Robert Bernatowicz)
Translator: Slawek Paruszewski Field Samplers: Milosz Kuss, Robert Bernatowicz
Materials Sampled: Black/green "stone," and soils
Analyses By: Nick Reiter (SEM/EDS); Phyllis Budinger (Infrared Spectroscopy)
Description of Event: Mrs. Kuss, a grandmother who has lived in this very rural area in central Poland all of her life, has a bedroom on the ground floor of the farmhouse. Her large windows look out across a country road to her farm fields which extend 150-200 meters, ending in an approximately 10m-long area of wild grasses, behind which is forest. There are only a few other farmhouses in the area and few people.
Evelina Kuss - Golabki, Poland
Eyewitness to "Burning" UFO, July/August, 1998
Photo: N. Talbott
Mrs. Evelina Kuss (eyewitness) and her grandson, Milosz Kuss in Golalbki, Poland
"Stone" found by Milosz at Landing Site
Mrs. Kuss' bedroom windows (red arrow) from which she witnessed event.
Photo: N. Talbott
Field directly across from farmhouse, at end of which
Mrs. Kuss observed UFO descend and land. Photo: N. Talbott
Mrs. Kuss reports that it was about 2 am (in July or perhaps early August) and she couldn't fall asleep: "I don't know why, but I couldn't. And suddenly the room simply became all red ... the whole room became red because there was something glowing outside the window. I saw this object in the sky. It had the shape of an ellipsis and glowed in red, a very intense red. ... And it was very slowly lowering itself onto the field. The glow from this thing was enormous. The whole object was emitting such light that it reminded me of a bright ball, but with a distinctive shape inside the glow. And it was going down, very, very slowly."
Mrs. Kuss' drawing of red "glowing" object she watched slowly
descend into the field in front of her farmhouse.
[Insert above her drawing is an illustration from another case in which
the UFO had a similar red glow.]
At first Mrs. Kuss thought it might be a meteorite, but realized it couldn't be because it was descending so slowly. Sometimes it even "stopped" for awhile and would then continue its descent. The object, which was about 150 meters away from her, appeared to be 3-4 meters across. "I think it could have been several meters in length ... I saw it very clearly, it wasn't very far away, glowing like a piece of [hot] iron. There had been wheat [in the field] which my son had sown, but it had been reaped already. And I thought that, since this fire landed there, the field might catch on fire from it. I even wanted to wake up my family, but the light began to dim. It was dimming out very, very slowly. I saw that nothing was on fire, so I went to bed and in the morning during breakfast I told my family about it, I said that this object had landed there. And I showed them exactly where it landed."
Mrs. Kuss reports that about 15 minutes elapsed from the moment she first saw the red glow in her bedroom until the object landed and became so dim she could no longer see it. She continued to observe the field for about another hour before finally going to bed. She reports that she noticed no unusual smell and experienced no tingling of the skin or other possible electromagnetic effects, and she doesn't recall hearing any unusual animal noises. The object itself was silent. There are no street-lights in her area and none of the lights in her house (or the radio or TV) were on, so she is unaware of any electrical interference which may have been caused by the object. The only clock observed in the house was hand-wound.
Retrieval of "Stone": The morning after witnessing the UFO Mrs. Kuss told her family, including her grandson Milosz, about the event at breakfast. After attending to his chores, Milosz walked down to the end of the field to see if he could find any traces of the event the night before. At the end of the plowed field there is a 10-meter-long area of wild grasses & bushes before the forest. Milosz saw no sign of anything having been burned, instead finding approximately 10-15 "stones" placed on top of the grasses in an "irregular" circle or ellipse. "I knew straight-away that they had to have something to do with the object. There were several of them...mostly the size of a basketball, maybe slightly smaller. ... They made an irregular circle, they were scattered somewhat irregularly, as if by chance...or as if someone had put them there delicately. Their weight pressed the ground beneath them a little. There were no traces of anything burnt. There was this smallest stone in the middle and I took it immediately. ...
But the other stones were very heavy and I couldn't lift them [Milosz was 11 years old at the time]. They were dark green in color, like a green glass bottle and they were somewhat oval in if something solidified in huge drops. Their color was exactly the color of the stone I took."
Small "stone" retrieved by Milosz Kuss from group of similar, but larger,
rocks found at end of field. Red arrow points to one of
multiple holes pock-marking surface.
Photo: J. Karwat
Drawing by Milosz Kuss of the field & irregular circle of dark green
"stones" he found lying on the grass at the end of the field,
where his grandmother saw the UFO land.
Milosz brought the one "smaller" stone back to the house and told the family what he had found. A day or two later he took a wheelbarrow with him down to the end of the field in an attempt to retrieve the rest of the "stones." But when he got there the stones were no longer there. When asked if people could have taken the stones he was certain that this was very unlikely: "People? I don't think so...this is a wild, uninhabited place. Nobody walks here. Who would go into our field and take such heavy stones? I don't think they were taken by people, but rather by an object similar to the one that landed here."
When I questioned Milosz's parents they confirmed that there were very few residents in the area, and that the only people who ever went into their fields were themselves when they had to work to do. Other farmers in the region would have all been busy with their own crops and they knew of no one who might have even known about the UFO sighting, or the existence of the "stones."
Wild grass area at far end of plowed field where "stones" were found.
[Date-stamp on photo is incorrect - photo taken July 19, 2003]
Photo: N. Talbott
Milosz reported additional details about the stones, in particular that the stone he had retrieved "glowed." "This is the most important part...I noticed the following night ... that this stone gives away a delicate glow in the night. I mean, the light was greenish and only the edges were giving away the light. They [the lights] were like small glowing flames, or's hard to describe, but it was amazing."
When asked if the whole edge of the stone was glowing he said that the stone had sharp edges all over it and that the "glowing points were on the edges." He reports that it continued to glow at night for about half a year and then stopped.
Milosz also clarified that some of the stones were as big as cinder-blocks, with some rough edges like the smaller stone he retrieved, and all a dark greenish color. The stone he recovered is now more black than green, but it has multiple light-green inclusions (which are visible in good light). Since it appears that these may have been fluorescing when the rock was first recovered, this may be why he describes the stones as basically green, rather than black.
Sampling of Soils: In the late summer of 1998 Milosz and his family could find no one who was particularly interested in investigating this event (in spite of the fact that other very strange occurrences had been reported from time to time by other people in the surrounding area). The family discussed the sighting with a few people locally, but found that their story was laughed at, and they were not taken seriously.
In the summer of 2000 a photo of a large crop circle which had been found in a field in the nearby village of Wylatowo, appeared in many Polish newspapers--attracting the attention of Warsaw radio reporter Robert Bernatowicz. Bernatowicz, who is the head of The Nautilus Foundation (a group interested in unexplained phenomena), visited Wylatowo to examine the crop formation personally, and soon met Milosz Kuss. Once acquainted, Milosz related the story about his grandmother's sighting and his retrieval of the "stone" from the field.
Mr. Bernatowicz followed up with in-depth interviews with Milosz, Evelina Kuss and others in the area, documenting as many details as he could. Needing access to more sophisticated technical analyses than he could find in Poland, Bernatowicz eventually contacted the BLT Research Team Inc. in the U.S. for assistance. In addition to requiring pieces of the stone for analysis, BLT requested that soil samples be taken from the area where the stone had been found, and these were provided by Milosz during the late spring of 2003. A surface soil sample (down to a depth of 4 inches) was taken from the grassy area where the rock had been recovered, as well as control soil from the plowed field up closer to the farmhouse. The rock pieces and soils were then shipped to the BLT office in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
(SEM/EDS analysis)
Laboratory Analysis (SEM/EDS): On June 3, 2003 two rock fragments were submitted to BLT-consultant Nick Reiter, of the Avalon Foundation, for scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and other examinations. A few weeks later soil samples were also submitted. Mr. Reiter's Lab Report follows.
Enlargment of initial rock photo, clearly showing glassy surface with
multiple circular indentations, indicating gaseous expiration during cooling.
Lab photo of larger sample of glassy stone, in which
greenish color is apparent. Sample is approx. 1.2 cm. in length.
Photo: N. Reiter, 17 June 2003
Lab photo of both rock samples (in this lighting glassy surface appears black).
Photo: N. Reiter, 17 June 2003
Physical Form: The two glassy stones are shown in the color photos, above. As may be seen, the larger sample (before being later split in two) was approximately 1.2 cm long; the smaller was slightly less than 1 cm. Both are seen to be of similar color, a very dark green-black. We also observe that small (< 2mm) bubbles and voids are present in both, consistent with the immediately apparent notion that these samples are essentially glass.
EDS and Comparative Analysis: EDS scans taken from assorted spots on both stone samples are quite consistent. We find Si (silicon), O (oxygen), Al (aluminum), Mg (magnesium), Ca (calcium), K (potassium) and minor amounts of Fe (iron) and Ti (titanium).
EDS Scan of fragment from larger (1.2 cm) piece of glassy stone (150x l5 kV).
Scan is consistent with multiple others carried out on both the larger
& smaller samples. Scan: N. Reiter, 26 June 2003
Other Properties:
(1) No noticeable radioactivity was observed upon testing with a Geiger counter;
(2) No fluorescence was observed in the visible portion of the spectrum when samples were exposed to both long- and short-wave UV.
(3) Neither sample was magnetic.
Discussion: Two analogous materials may be found which resemble these samples. A semi-precious gemstone originally derived from ancient meteoric glass in the region of the Moldau River--called Moldavite--resembles our samples somewhat in form, but not necessarily in color, as Moldavite is usually a brighter and lighter green. However the samples do very much resemble vitrified soil, produced by a well-known toxic or nuclear waste remediation process known as ISV: in-situ vitrification. In this process electrical arcs are made to flow deep into soil areas contaminated with toxic wastes or radioactive substances, liquifying the soil components and producing a non-permeable glassy material as the liquid soils cools. This glassy residual can then either remain safely underground (since the toxic wastes are now contained) or can be subsequently safely hauled away.
Features and benefits of two different technologies for in-situ
vitrification, developed by the Geo-Melt (TM) Corp.
Additional Testing: The observation by the original discoverer of the glassy rock, indicating a long-term phosphorescence or fluorescence continued to intrigue us. We requested additional samples, specifically from the lighter-green "veins" reported to be visible in the stone, and in December, 2003 did receive an additional small (< 2mm diam.) light green glassy shard for analysis.
EDS revealed the composition of this new sample to be quite similar to the samples already examined; however, SEM photography revealed that this shard was quite "foamy" in appearance, infused with tiny air-bubbles and voids, typical for ceramics. These air bubbles are thought to account for the overall much lighter green coloration in some areas of the retrieved stone.
SEM photomicrograph (100 X) of small lighter-green glassy shard showing
multiple tiny air bubbles in sample. SEM Image: N. Reiter
The new sample was also examined under long- and short-wave UV lamps, but no fluorescence was noted. This suggests that the original "luminous" quality reported by the rock's finder was short-lived and non-reversible. This sample was also examined by Geiger counter, with no rise in count-rate over ambient noted.
An anecdote from this researcher's past, though, may be germane. In years past I had worked at a major glass company in Toledo, Ohio, as a technician involved with vacuum depositing of coatings on large-area glass sheets. One of the materials we coated onto glass was a thin film of fused silica (SiO2) as a wear-resistant coating. The process was performed in a huge vacuum chamber, where silica sand was evaporated by electron beam sources. Regularly we would have to shut the system down after a production run and go inside the cavern-like chamber to clean off the cooling shields and chamber walls. One anomaly that we observed, which was never adequately explained, involved a faint greenish glowing of the flakes of "over-spray" glassy fused silica on the cool chamber walls. On one occasion we observed this faint glowing up to 24 hours after shutting the evaporation sources down.
Thus, although the reported anomalous glowing of our fused glassy rock sample over a period of months is extra-ordinary, I have personally observed the glowing of vaporized and condensed fused silica for periods of multiple hours. Perhaps some analog is present.
Soil Samples: Two soil samples, requested by BLT Inc. in the spring of 2003, were obtained in May 2003; these were received in the lab on 30 June 2003. One sample was taken from the grass area where the rocks had been found and a control was obtained about 25m away from the middle of the plowed field. Both soil samples were dug down to about 4 inches into the soil.
EDS analysis of granular soil tends to be somewhat problematic, due to the physical heterogeneity of such samples (except in the case of fine clays). "Dirt" is a complex material, and usually requires several EDS scans from each sample to get an idea about overall composition.
Examination of the soil sample taken from the grassy area where the rocks were found shows a sandy or coarse-grained silty soil. EDS shows normal soil ingredients, primarily Si, O and Al; Ca, K, Fe and Mg are seen as minor peaks. EDS of control soil taken 25m away is ratiometrically similar to the rock-area soils, with very similar signals of Si, Al (which is slightly elevated over the rock-area soil), O, Ca, K, Fe and Mg, but with traces of Mo (molybdenum) and P (phosphorus) which were not seen in the rock-area soil.
EDS Scan of soil from stone area showing typical soil ingredients,
primarily Si, O and Al; Ca, K, Fe and Mg are seen as minor peaks (750x 20kV).
Scan: N. Reiter, 1 July 2003
We also observe another very interesting fact: the composition of the soil taken from the area of the glassy stones contains most of the same constituents as the glassy stones themselves--however, not all -- and not in any similar ratio. The glassy stones are much richer in Mg (magnesium), with a minor Ti (titanium) peak visible (likely indicating rutile, a mineral form of titanium dioxide). The soils said to be from the glassy stone area have very little Mg, and no visible Ti (see following scans).
EDS Scans of Stone (100 x 20kV) and Soils (750x 20kV) from
same area showing stronger Mg peak, and presence of Ti in stone only .
Scans: N. Reiter, 1 July 2003
Laboratory Analysis (Infrared Spectroscopy): On July 8, 2003 a fragment of the "stone" retrieved from a farm field in Poland in 1998 was submitted to Phyllis Budinger, Frontier Analysis Ltd. Laboratory, for additional infrared spectroscopy analysis.
Procedure: The dark "stone" fragment is approximately 9 x 7 x 2mm and weighs 0.2358 grams. An infrared spectrum was taken of a tiny amount of ground material removed from the fragment, using the Harrick SplitPea accessory on the Nicolet Avatar 360 spectrometer. Stereomicroscope photographs were obtained using the Leika GZ6 microscope interfaced to a Kodak Digital Science MDS 120 camera.
Results: Microscopic analysis shows the material has a glassy appearance with some apparent bubbles. This would suggest the material has been exposed to a temperature high enough to cause "melting" of the mineral silicate in the sample (see infrared analysis, below, on the identification of glass-like Si-O bonds, and Nick Reiter's report, above).
Two microphotographs of dark "stone" fragment, showing glassy appearance
and apparent bubbles
Photos: Frontier Analysis Ltd Laboratory
The infrared spectrum of the "stone" fragment shows very broad absorption bands which are typical of an amorphous glass-like substance. The frequencies of the bands (between 1050-900 cm _ and between 550-400 cm _) are definitely due to Si-O absorption. The spectrum is a close comparison to a spectrum of lava, which is rock that has experienced melting.1 These data suggest that the rock fragment originally contained a high concentration of silica mineral (i.e., sand - a.k.a. quartz) that has been subjected to high temperature. Glass (manufactured from 75% silica plus other materials) requires temperatures of at least 700-800ºC (1300-1500 F) in order to become glass.2
Infrared spectrum of the "stone" sample (red) along with a reference spectrum of lava (blue) for comparison. Infrared Spectrum: Frontier Analysis Ltd. Laboratory
1Lava specimen is from Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaii. 2Lewis, Richard K. Sr., Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Fourteenth Edition: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2002.
(1) By all indications, the glassy stone samples provided are most likely highly-vitrified soil. The source of this vitrification/conversion to a glass remains unknown.
(2) The lighter-green areas of the stone (said to have fluoresced at the time of retrieval and for several months following) are comprised of essentially the same elements as the darker areas, but contain multiple tiny air bubbles and voids which account for the lighter color in these areas;
(3) The composition of the soils from the area where the glassy stones were found and the control soils 25m away is very similar, representing typical soil components.
(4) The EDS scans of the glassy stones and the soils from the area where the stones were found do not resemble each other ratiometrically -- indicating that the vitrified stones are probably not derived from soils indigenous to that precise location.
--Nick Reiter, The Avalon Foundation
Infrared and microscopic examination of the stone shows an amorphous and glassy Si-O containing material. Clearly the data supports Nick Reiter's conclusions that this sample is soil that has been vitrified.
--Phyllis Budinger, Frontier Analysis Ltd
BLT Research Team Inc.
PO Box 400127
Cambridge, MA 02140 (USA)
ph: 617/492-0415
Date: January 30, 2004



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