- Osama bin Laden, two years and three months after the
New York and Washington attacks that were part of his jihad against America,
appears to be winning. He has lost his base in Afghanistan, as well as
many colleagues and fighters, and his communications and finances have
been disrupted. He may be buried under rubble in Afghanistan or, as Washington
and London assume, be hiding in Pakistan's tribal areas. But from Kandahar
to Baghdad, from Istanbul to Riyadh, blood is being shed in the name of
Bin Laden's jihad.
- On Saturday, a Taliban bomb went off in the bazaar in
Kandahar, aimed at US soldiers but wounding 20 Afghan civilians. On the
same day, US planes targeted a "known terrorist" in Ghazni, also
in Afghanistan, killing nine children. The deaths of the children will
not help the US win hearts and minds in Afghanistan, or elsewhere; indeed,
they will alienate Muslim opinion worldwide.
- There is a tendency in the west to play down - or ignore
- the extent of Bin Laden's success. The US and UK governments regard mentioning
it as disloyal or heretical. But look back on interviews by Bin Laden in
the 1990s to see what he has achieved. He can tick off one of the four
objectives he set himself, and, arguably, a second.
- The objectives were: the removal of US soldiers from
Saudi soil; the overthrow of the Saudi government; the removal of Jews
from Israel; and worldwide confrontation between the west and the Muslim
- His success in the first is clear-cut. Bin Laden's animosity
towards the US began in earnest with the arrival of tens of thousands of
US soldiers in his home country, Saudi Arabia, for the war against Iraq
in 1991. He objected to their presence because Saudi Arabia holds Islam's
two holiest sites, Mecca and Medina.
- After September 11, the US did exactly what Bin Laden
wanted. It pulled almost all its troops out of Saudi Arabia and moved its
regional headquarters to Qatar. Relations between Washington and Riyadh
have remained strained since September 11, not surprising given that the
bulk of the attackers were from Saudi Arabia.
- Bin Laden has not succeeded in his second objective of
overthrowing the Saudi regime. But its position is much more precarious
than when he first called for it to be deposed. The US government's ambivalence
towards Riyadh has created jitters in the kingdom. The Saudi authorities,
after a decade in denial, are now confronting al-Qaida and cracking down
on preachers regarded as too fiery. Saudi Arabia, in spite of its oil wealth,
has huge economic and social problems -including a large, disgruntled pool
of unemployed youths - that leave it vulnerable. Reports of firefights
between the Saudi authorities and al-Qaida-related groups are now commonplace.
- Bin Laden has not achieved his third objective either:
the destruction of Israel. In spite of its suffering at the hands of suicide
bombers, Israel is in the ascendant, with strict controls over the daily
lives of Palestinians, frequent assassination of suspected bombers and
other militants, and a continued land grab in the West Bank. But the one-sided
nature of the conflict and the emotions it arouses beyond its boundaries
have helped Bin Laden achieve the fourth and most important of his objectives:
- In February 1997, he predicted such polarization. at
a time when it seemed unlikely: "The war will not only be between
the people of the two sacred mosques [Saudi Arabia] and the Americans,
but it will be between the Islamic world and the Americans and their allies,
because this war is a new crusade led by America against the Islamic nations."
- Bin Laden, assuming he is alive and wired to the internet,
would have enjoyed the Times on Saturday, which devoted the best part of
a page to a story headlined "the new enemy within", warning of
a potential bombing threat in the UK from a British-born sleeper from the
Muslim community. That such a possibility is no longer regarded as unlikely
shows the extent to which the world has changed.
- Tony Blair and the foreign secretary, Jack Straw, have
repeatedly argued that the "war on terrorism" is aimed at a small
group of Muslim terrorists and the failed states that harbor them. They
will, rightly, deny that it is a crusade against Muslims.
- Last week, for the first time, the Foreign Office published
a list of its policy objectives, of which the war against terrorism was
top, and acknowledged the danger of polarization. Looking at the next 10
years, the Foreign Office said the battle of ideologies between market
economics and Marxism that dominated 20th-century Europe appears to be
giving way to battles over religion.
- "T he possible confrontation of ideas most likely
to affect the UK and other western democracies in the early 21st century
stems from religion and culture," according to the Foreign Office
strategy document, UK International Priorities. "Religious belief
is coming back to the fore as a motivating force in international relations;
in some cases it is distorted to cloak political purposes. The question
will arise most obviously in relations between western democracies and
some Islamic countries or groups."
- Bin Laden's September 11 attacks are mainly to blame
for this polarization. But the responses of George Bush have exacerbated
this, with his two wars and the failure to tackle the Israel-Palestinian
conflict. Two years after the occupation of Afghanistan, US control is
patchy. Outside cities, travel is risky, and even within them, life can
be dangerous, as the Kandahar bombing demonstrated. The Taliban have regrouped
and are returning in strength.
- Perhaps the war on Afghanistan was necessary - but the
war on Iraq was not. There was no link between Saddam Hussein and Bin Laden.
The US is fighting on two fronts, in control of neither country. Much of
the resistance in Iraq to the US is from Saddam loyalists or criminal or
tribal groups. But the US and British claim there are also elements of
- Instead of the war on Iraq, Bush would have been better,
as Blair continually advised him, to deal first with Israel-Palestine.
Although the US secretary of state, Colin Powell, last week showed interest
in the Geneva accord, the work of the Israeli-Palestinian peace camp, Bush
has dropped any pretence of a US that acts as an independent arbitrator
in the conflict. He has placed himself alongside Sharon. He has said he
supports the creation of a Palestinian state, but shows no desire to use
America's political and financial power over Israel to try to bring it
about. The resolution of the Israel-Palestinian conflict, however, is the
only immediate way of reversing the dangerous polarization. of the world
that Bin Laden seeks.
- Ewen MacAskill is the Guardian's diplomatic editor
- © Guardian Newspapers Limited 2003