- While the cutting techniques of
the ancient pyramid builders have been a continuing topic for debate, they
have not received the same attention and controversy as the proposed methods
that were used to lift and transport huge cyclopean blocks of stone. While
Egyptologists and orthodox believers in primitive methods argue that the
huge blocks were moved and put into place using only man power, experts
in moving heavy weights using modern cranes throw doubt on the subject.
- My company recently installed a hydraulic press that
weighed 65 tons. In order to lift it and drop it through the roof, they
had to bring in a special crane. The crane was brought to the site in pieces
and was transported from 80 miles away over a period of five days. After
15 semi-trailer loads, the crane was finally assembled and ready for use.
- As the press was lowered into its specially prepared
pit, I asked one of the riggers about the heaviest weight he had lifted.
He claimed that it was a 110-ton nuclear power plant vessel. When I related
to him the 70 and 200 ton weights of the blocks of stone used inside the
Great Pyramid and the Valley Temple, he expressed amazement and disbelief
at the primitive methods that are promoted by Egyptologists.
many, it is enough just to argue the issue from a logical standpoint. For
others, the subject becomes more meaningful when a proposed method is demonstrated
and proven to be successful. There is only one man in the world who, by
demonstration, has supported the claim, I know the secret of how the pyramids
of Egypt were built! The man is now deceased.
- The claim was made by an eccentric Latvian recluse named
Edward Leedskalnin. An immigrant to the United States of America, Leedskalnin
devised a means to single-handedly lift and maneuver blocks of coral weighing
up to 30 tons each. In Homestead, Florida, using his closely guarded secret,
he was able to quarry and construct an entire complex of monolithic blocks
of coral in an arrangement that reflected his own unique character. On
average, the weight of a single block used in the Coral Castle was greater
than those used to build the Great Pyramid. He labored for 28 years to
complete the work, which consisted of a total of 1,100 tons of rock. What
was Leedskalnin's secret? Is it possible for a five-foot tall, 110 pound
man to accomplish such a feat without knowing techniques that are uncommon
to our contemporary understanding of physics and mechanics?
- Leedskalnin was a student of the universe. Within his
castle walls, built of coral blocks weighing approximately 15 tons each,
he had a 22-ton obelisk, a 22-ton moon block, a 23-ton Jupiter block, a
Saturn block, a 9-ton gate, a rocking chair that weighed 3-tons, and numerous
puzzles. A huge 30-ton block, which he considered to be his major achievement,
he crowned with a gable shaped rock. These personal accomplishments have
astounded and surprised many engineers and technologists, who compare them
with those achieved by workers handling similar weights in industry today.
- For his miracles of construction engineering, Leedskalnin
received attention not only from engineers and technologists, but from
the U.S. government, who paid him a visit hoping to be enlightened. Leedskalnin
received them gracefully, and they left none the wiser. In 1952, falling
ill and on his last legs, Leedskalnin checked himself into the hospital
and slipped away from this life, taking his secret with him.
- If we assume that Leedskalnin and the ancient pyramid builders
were using similar techniques, it puts a whole different light on the requirements
in man hours necessary to construct the Great Pyramid. Estimates for the
number of workers that built the Great Pyramid range between 20,000 and
100,000. Though it should be noted that the precision to which Leedskalnin
worked his coral was not the same as that worked on the pyramid stone,
based on the abilities of this one man, quarrying and erecting a total
of 1,100 tons of rock over a time span of 28 years, the 5,273,834 tons
of stone built into the Great Pyramid could have been quarried and put
in place by only 4,794 workers. Figure in the efficiencies gained from
working in a team, the division of labor, and we can reduce the number
of workers and/or shorten the time needed to do it. Let's not forget Mr.
Merle Booker (deceased) of the Indiana USA Limestone Institute, who prepared
an estimate for the delivery of enough limestone to build a Great Pyramid.
Using the same criteria, with respect to size and quantity, as the ancient
pyramid builders, but using modern equipment, his estimate included tripling
the average output of all 33 Indiana limestone quarries. The estimate did
not factor in any equipment failures, labor disputes or acts-of-God. He
estimated that twenty seven years after the order was placed, the last
stone would have been delivered!
- I first visited Coral Castle in 1982. It soon became
clear to me that Ed's claim was accurate. He did indeed know the secrets
of the ancient Egyptians. I returned to Homestead again in April 1995 to
refresh my mind and, specifically, to closely examine a device which, in
1992, fueled a discussion between myself and an engineer colleague, Steven
Defenbaugh, resulting in a speculation as to the methods Leedskalnin was
- Leedskalnin took issue with modern science's understanding
of nature. He flatly states that they are wrong. His concept of nature
is simple. All matter consists of individual magnets and it is the movement
of these magnets within materials and through space that produces measurable
phenomena, i.e., magnetism and electricity.
- Whether Leedskalnin was right or wrong in his assertions,
from his simple premise he was able to devise a means to single-handedly
elevate and maneuver large weights which would be impossible using conventional
methods. There is speculation that he was employing electromagnetism to
eliminate or reduce the gravitational pull of the earth. These speculations
are entertained by some and scoffed at by others, who have feet which are
firmly planted in the real world.
- While at Coral Castle, I commented to a lady standing
in Leedskalnin's workshop that it was quite a feat he had performed, and
asked if she had any idea how he had done it. Fixing me with a measured
look, she stated, through the application of physics and mechanics such
work can be done. Somehow sensing my esoteric bent, she commented that
Thor Heyedahl had dispatched wild speculation about how the huge stone
statues on Easter Island were put in place when he reenacted the work by
carving, moving, and erecting one.
alone, and wanting a photograph taken of myself in Leedskalnin's workshop,
I didn't want to be argumentative. Smiling, I handed her the camera and
didn't point out that Heyerdahl, unlike Leedskalnin, had an ample supply
of willing and healthy natives, therefore sufficient man power to satisfy
the physical requirements for conventionally moving such large weights,
even on rollers, and cantilevering them into an upright position. He was
an energetic man, but, using these methods, Heyerdahl couldn't have done
it alone. Moreover, Heyerdahl merely demonstrated that the job can be done
using one particular method. Anyone who has worked in manufacturing knows
that there are many ways of doing things. To devise a means to perform
a given work and present it as the only way that such work could be done
gives little credit to those who either a.) might know a better way, or
b.) might look for a better method, and succeed in finding one.
- When analyzing ancient engineering feats, and faced with
explaining technically difficult tasks, Egyptologists and archaeologists
typically throw in more time and more people using primitive, simple tools
and manpower. Unlike conventional arguments regarding ancient civilizations,
in the case of Ed Leedskalnin, we cannot impose the view that the work
was done employing masses of people, for it is well documented that Leedskalnin
- Egyptologists claim to know how the Great Pyramid was
built. To prove it, they built a small pyramid consisting of stones no
heavier than 2-1/2 tons that were hefted into place using a gang of workers,
straining on ropes. (See This Old Pyramid, NOVA with Mark Lehner and company.)
Leedskalnin claimed to know how the Great Pyramid was built, and to prove
it he moved a 30-ton and other monolithic blocks of coral to build his
castle. It's too bad the cameras weren't on Leedskalnin as they were on
Lehner and company. I believe that Leedskalnin's feat would be more descriptive
of the pyramid builders methods than Lehner's.
- What follows is speculation that attempts to follow Leedskalnin's
basic premise regarding the nature of electricity and magnetism to a conclusion
that has some semblance of logic. The speculation follows some basic rules
for brainstorming. There's no such thing as a stupid idea.
- What we have been taught about the subject may not necessarily
apply when seeking and, hopefully, finding a real solution.
- A paradigm shift in my perception of anti-gravity occurred
when Defenbaugh and I were discussing the subject with Judd Peck, the CEO
of the company for which we both work. Peck asked the simple question What
is anti-gravity? In an attempt to describe anti-gravity I had to say A
means by which objects can be lifted, overcoming the gravitational pull
of the earth. It then occurred to me that we were already applying anti-gravitational
techniques in our everyday life. When we get out of bed in the morning
we employ anti-gravity. An airplane, rocket, fork-lift truck and an elevator
are technologies devised to overcome the effects of gravity. Even a car
rolling along on its wheels is an anti-gravity device. Without the wheels
and a propulsion system, it would be just dead weight.
- I realized that I had been laboring under the assumption
that, in order to create an anti-gravity device, gravity should be a known
and understood phenomenon and, through the application of technology, out-of-phase
gravity waves can be created in such a manner to neutralize it. The nature
of gravity still eludes us, as well as the production of interference gravity
- Perhaps this concept is too complicated!
if there's no such thing as gravity? And the natural forces we already
know about are sufficient to explain the noted phenomena we have labeled
as gravity? If, as Leedskalnin claims, all matter consists of individual
magnets, wouldn't the known properties of a magnet be sufficient? We know
that like poles repel and unlike poles attract. We also know that we can
suspend one magnet above another as long as we don't allow either of them
to flip over so that the opposite poles attract each other. Magnets seek
to attract and, left to themselves, will align their opposite poles to
each other. Consider the magnet that is made to suspend above the other.
A mag-lev train is a good example of an antigravity device.
- If a large magnet is suspended over a smaller magnet,
depending on the ratio between them, the distance between the magnets would
be diminished to the point that the smaller magnet wouldn't be able to
exert enough force to elevate it. The earth, being the largest magnet,
issues forth streams of magnetic energy which follow lines of force that
have been noted for centuries. If we assume, as Leedskalnin did, that all
objects consist of individual magnets, we can also assume that an attraction
exists between these objects due to the inherent nature of a magnet seeking
to align an opposite pole to another. Perhaps Leedskalnin's means of working
with the Earth's gravitational pull was nothing more complicated than devising
a means by which the alignment of magnetic elements within his coral blocks
was adjusted to face the streams of individual magnets he claims are issuing
forth from the Earth with a like repelling pole.
- A known method for creating magnetism in an iron bar
is to align the bar with the Earth's magnetic field and strike the bar
with a hammer. This vibrates the elements in the bar and allows them to
be influenced by the magnetic field they are in. The result is that when
the vibration stops, a significant number of the atoms have aligned themselves
within this magnetic field.
- Was this the method that Leedskalnin was using? It's
a simple concept, but looking at the devices in Leedskalnin's workshop,
I can easily imagine the application of vibration and electromagnetism.
His fly-wheel for creating electricity remains motionless, for the most
part, until inquisitive tourists like me come along and give it a spin.
After a few revolutions, I realized that something was missing. The narrative
I had heard, while browsing around the castle, described Leedskalnin as
using this device to create electricity to power his electric light bulbs.
It was claimed that Leedskalnin didn't have electricity, but I couldn't
imagine this device being a useful and continuing source of power, using
only Leedskalnin's right arm to turn the wheel. On closer examination of
this piece, I found that the whole assembly was actually an old 4-cylinder
crank case. His flywheel was mounted on the front end of the crankshaft
and consisted of bar magnets that were sandwiched between two plates, the
upper plate being a ring gear. Giving it weight and solidifying the entire
assembly, Leedskalnin had encased the bar magnets with cement. It then
occurred to me that the photo of Leedskalnin with his hand on the crank
handle, which is attached to the end of the shaft, may not accurately represent
his entire operation. It is possible that Leedskalnin was using the crank
handle to start a reciprocating engine, now missing, which attached to
one of the throws on the crankshaft. He would then be able to walk away
and leave his flywheel running.
- I was now mystified. I had developed a notion that the
bars attached to the flywheel were actually being used to develop vibration
in the piece Leedskalnin was trying to lift. This idea didn't make sense
after looking at the type of material, size and weight of the entire assembly.
The crankcase was firmly attached to the coral block in his workshop, and
even if it wasn't attached, it would be quite a feat to keep moving it
about. There was one factor I needed to check out, though, before I headed
back to Illinois. I had tested the bar magnet with a pocket knife. The
knife was attracted to each bar. I needed to know, conclusively, the arrangement
of the poles in the wheel, to see, indeed, whether the assembly was capable
of creating electricity.
- Leaving the workshop and absorbing the penetrating rays
of the Florida sunshine, I headed for the nearest strip mall to look for
a hardware store so that I could buy a bar magnet. North on Route1 I found
a Radio Shack. They had just what I needed, and for only $1.75. Feeling
rather pleased, I swung back onto Route 1 and returned to Coral Castle.
- Once there, I headed back into Leedskalnin's workshop
and put the magnet to the test. I held the magnet a short distance away
from the spokes of the flywheel while giving it a spin. Sure enough, I
found out what I had come for. The magnet pushed and pulled in my grasp
as the wheel rotated. Looking around the room, I gazed at a jumble of various
devices, lying, hanging and leaning about the room. There were radio tuners,
bottles with copper wire wrapped around them, spools of copper wire and
other various and sundry plastic and metal pieces that looked like they
had fallen out of an old radio set.
- Leedskalnin's workshop also contained chains, blocks
and tackle and other items that one might find lying around a junkyard.
Some items are missing, though. Photographs of Leedskalnin at work show
three tripods, made of telephone poles, that have boxes attached to the
top. These objects, however, are not to be found at Coral Castle. What
is striking here, is that the block of coral being moved is seen off to
the side of the tripod. Perhaps Leedskalnin had moved the tripod after
raising the block out of the bedrock. Though another interesting observation
is that the block and tackle that can be found inside his workshop are
nowhere to be seen in this photograph. There are spools of copper wire
in his workshop, and there were also two wrappings of copper wire. One
was round copper and the other flat copper. In a narrative that visitors
can hear at various recording stations around the compound, it is stated
that at one time Leedskalnin had a grid of copper wire suspended in the
air. Looking at the photograph, again, one can see that there is a cable
draped around the tripod and running down to the ground. Perhaps the arrangement
of tripods was more related to the suspension of his copper grid than the
suspension of block and tackle.
- I have no doubt that Leedskalnin told the truth when
he said he knew the secrets of the ancient Egyptians. Unlike those who
have sought publicity for their own inadequate, though politically correct,
theories, he proved it by his actions. I believe, also, that these techniques
can be rediscovered and put to use for the benefit of mankind. Edward Leedskalnin,
right or wrong, had a little bit of a problem with trust. This modus operandi
was not unusual for a craftsman of his day. Proprietary techniques without
patent disclosure assure continued employment and, therefore, it was perfectly
normal that he would protect his secret from prying eyes that might steal
and profit from it. I believe there are enough pieces there to put together
and replicate his technique. It's been done once (sorry, twice), and I
am sure that it can be done again!
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