- On March 30, an AP photo featured an American pro-war
activist holding a sign: "Nuke the evil scum, it worked in 1945!"
That's exactly what George Bush has done. America's mega-billion dollar
war in Iraq has been indeed a NUCLEAR WAR.
- Bush-Cheney have delivered upon 17 million Iraqis tons
of depleted uranium (DU) weapons, a "liberation" gift that will
keep on giving. Depleted uranium is a component of toxic nuclear waste,
usually stored at secure sites. Handlers need radiation protection gear.
- Over a decade ago, war-makers decided to incorporate
this lethal waste into much of the Pentagon's weaponry. Navy ships carrying
Phalanx rapid fire guns are capable of firing thousands of DU rounds per
minute.1 Tomahawk missiles launched from U.S. ships and subs are DU-tipped.2
The M1 Abrams tanks are armored with DU.3 These and British Challenger
II tanks are tightly packed with DU shells, which continually irradiate
troops in or near them.4 The A-10 "tank buster" aircraft fires
DU shells at machines and people on the battlefield.5
- DU munitions are classified by a United Nations resolution
as illegal weapons of mass destruction. Their use breaches all international
laws, treaties and conventions forbidding poisoned weapons calculated to
cause unnecessary suffering.
- Ironically, support for our troops will extend well beyond
the war in Iraq. Americans will be supporting Gulf War II veterans for
years as they slowly and painfully succumb to radiation poisoning. U.S
and British troops deployed to the area are the walking dead. Humans and
animals, friends and foes in the fallout zone are destined to a long downhill
spiral of chronic illness and disability. Kidney dysfunction, lung damage,
bloody stools, extreme fatigue, joint pain, unsteady gait, memory loss
and rashes and, ultimately, cancer and premature death await those exposed
- Award-winning journalist Will Thomas wrote: "As
the last Gulf conflict so savagely demonstrated, GI immune systems reeling
from multiple doses of experimental vaccines offer little defense against
further exposure to chemical weapons, industrial toxins, stress, caffeine,
insect repellent and radiation leftover from the last war. This is a war
even the victors will lose."6
- When a DU shell is fired, it ignites upon impact. Uranium,
plus traces of plutonium and americium, vaporize into tiny, ceramic particles
of radioactive dust. Once inhaled, uranium oxides lodge in the body and
emit radiation indefinitely. A single particle of DU lodged in a lymph
node can devastate the entire immune system according to British radiation
expert Roger Coghill.7
- The Royal Society of England published data showing that
battlefield soldiers who inhale or swallow high levels of DU can suffer
kidney failure within days.8 Any soldier now in Iraq who has not inhaled
lethal radioactive dust is not breathing. In the first two weeks of combat,
700 Tomahawks, at a cost of $1.3 million each, blasted Iraqi real estate
into radioactive mushroom clouds.9 Millions of DU tank rounds liter the
terrain. Cleanup is impossible because there is no place on the planet
to put so much contaminated debris.
- Bush Sr.'s Gulf War I was also a nuclear war. 320 tons
of depleted uranium were used against Iraq in 1991.10 A 1998 report by
the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances confirms that inhaling DU causes symptoms
identical to those claimed by many sick vets with Gulf War Syndrome.11
The Gulf War Veterans Association reports that at least 300,000 Gulf
War I vets have now developed incapacitating illnesses.12 To date, 209,000
vets have filed claims for disability benefits based on service-connected
injuries and illnesses from combat in that war.13
- Dr. Asaf Durakovic, a professor of nuclear medicine at
Georgetown University, is a former army medical expert. He told nuclear
scientists in Paris last year that tens of thousands of sick British and
American soldiers are now dying from radiation they encountered during
Gulf War I. He found that 62 percent of sick vets tested have uranium
isotopes in their organs, bones, brains and urine.14 Laboratories in Switzerland
and Finland corroborated his findings.
- In other studies, some sick vets were found to be expressing
uranium in even their semen. Their sexual partners often complained of
a burning sensation during intercourse, followed by their own debilitating
- Nothing compares to the astronomical cancer rates and
birth defects suffered by the Iraqi people who have endured vicious nuclear
chastisement for years.16 U.S. air attacks against Iraq since 1993 have
undoubtedly employed nuclear munitions. Pictures of grotesquely deformed
Iraqi infants born since 1991 are overwhelming.17 Like those born to Gulf
War I vets, many babies born to troops now in Iraq will also be afflicted
with hideous deformities, neurological damage and/or blood and respiratory
- As an Army health physicist, Dr. Doug Rokke was dispatched
to the Middle East to salvage DU-contaminated tanks after Gulf War I. His
Geiger counters revealed that the war zones of Iraq and Kuwait were contaminated
with up to 300 millirems an hour in beta and gamma radiation plus thousands
to millions of counts per minute in alpha radiation. Rokke recently told
the media: "The whole area is still trashed. It is hotter than heck
over there still. This stuff doesn't go away."19
- DU remains "hot" for 4.5 billion years. Radiation
expert Dr. Helen Caldicott confirms that the dust-laden winds of DU-contaminated
war zones "will remain effectively radioactive for the rest of time."20
The murderous dust storms which ensnared coalition troops during the first
few days of the current invasion are sure to have significant health consequences.
- Rokke and his clean-up team were issued only flimsy dust
masks for their dangerous work. Of the 100 people on Rokke's decontamination
team, 30 have already "dropped dead." Rokke himself is ill with
radiation damage to lungs and kidneys. He has brain lesions, skin pustules,
chronic fatigue, continual wheezing and painful fibromyalgia. Rokke warns
that anyone exposed to DU should have adequate respiratory protection and
special coveralls to protect their clothing because, he says, you can't
get uranium particles off your clothing.
- The U.S. military insists that DU on the battlefield
is not a problem. Colonel James Naughton of the U.S. Army Material Command
recently told the BBC that complaints about DU "had no medical basis."21
The military's own documents belie this. A 1993 Pentagon document warned
that "when soldiers inhale or ingest DU dust they incur a potential
increase in cancer risk."22 A U.S. Army training manual requires anyone
who comes within 25 meters of DU-contaminated equipment to wear respiratory
and skin protection.23 The U.S. Army Environmental Policy Institute admitted:
"If DU enters the body, it has the potential to generate significant
medical consequences."24 The Institute also stated that, if the troops
were to realize what they had been exposed to, "the financial implications
of long-term disability payments and healthcare costs would be excessive."25
For pragmatic reasons, DOD chooses to lie and deny.
- Dr. Rokke confirms that the Pentagon lies about DU
dangers and is criminally negligent for neglecting medical attention needed
by DU-contaminated vets. He predicts that the numbers of American troops
to be sickened by DU from Gulf War II will be staggering.26 As they gradually
sicken and suffer a slow burn to their graves, the Pentagon will, as it
did after Gulf War I, deny that their misery and death is a result of
their tour in Iraq.
- Dr. Rokke's candor has cost him his career. Likewise,
Dr. Durakovic's radiation studies on Gulf War I vets were not popular with
U.S. officials. Dr. Durakovic was reportedly told his life was in danger
if he continued his research. He left the U.S. to continue his research
- Naive young coalition soldiers now in Iraq are likely
unaware of how deadly their battlefield environment is. Gulf War I troops
were kept in ignorance. Soldiers handled DU fragments and some wore these
lethal nuggets around their necks. A DU projectile emits more radiation
in five hours than allowed in an entire year under civilian radiation exposure
standards. "We didn't know any better," Kris Kornkven told Nation
magazine. "We didn't find out until long after we were home that there
even was such a thing as DU."28
- George Bush's ongoing war in Afghanistan is also a nuclear
war. Shortly after 9-11, the U.S. announced it would stockpile tactical
nuclear weapons including small neutron bombs, nuclear mines and shells
suited to commando warfare in Afghanistan.29 In late September, 2001, Bush
and Russian president Vladimir Putin agreed that the U.S. would use tactical
nuclear weapons in Afghanistan while Putin would employ nuclear weapons
against the Chechnyans.30
- Describing the Pentagon's B-61-11 burrowing nuke bomb,
George Smith writes in the Village Voice: "Built ram tough with
a heavy metal casing for smashing through the earth and concrete, the
B-61 explodes with the force of an estimated 340,000 tons of TNT. It is
lots of bang for the buck, literally two apocalypse bombs in one, a boosted
plutonium firecracker called the primary and a heavy hydrogen secondary
for that good old-fashioned H-bomb fireball."31
- Drought-stricken Afghanistan's underground water supply
is now contaminated by these nuclear weapons.32 Experts with the Uranium
Medical Research Center report that urine samples of Afghanis show the
highest level of uranium ever recorded in a civilian population. Afghani
soldiers and civilians are reported to have died after suffering intractable
vomiting, severe respiratory problems, internal bleeding and other symptoms
consistent with radiation poisoning. Dead birds still perched in trees
are found partially melted with blood oozing from their mouths.33
- Afghanistan's new president, Hamid Karzai, is a puppet
installed by Washington. Under the protection of American soldiers, Karzai's
regime is setting a new record for opium production. Both UN and U.S.
reports confirm that the huge Afghani opium harvest of 2002 makes Afghanistan
the world's leading opium producer.34 Thanks to nuclear weapons, Afghanistan
is now safe for the Bush-Cheney narcotics industry.35 ABC News asserts
that keeping the "peace" in Afghanistan will require decades
of allied occupation.36 For years to come, "peacekeepers" will
be eating, drinking and breathing the "hot" carcinogenic pollution
they have helped the Pentagon inflict upon that nation for organized crime.
- As governor of Arkansas during the Iran-Contra era, Bill
Clinton laundered $multi-millions in cocaine profits for then vice-president
George Bush Sr.37 As a partner in the Bush family's notorious crime machine,
President Clinton committed U.S. troops to NATO's campaign in the Balkans,
a prime heroin production and trans-shipment area. DOD's campaign to control
and reorganize the drug trade there for the Bush mafia was yet another
- For years, the U.S. and NATO fired DU missiles, bullets
and shells across the Balkans, nuking the peoples of Serbia, Bosnia and
Kosovo. As DU munitions were slammed into chemical plants, the environment
became hideously toxic, also endangering the peoples of Albania, Macedonia,
Greece, Italy, Austria and Hungary. By 1999, UN investigators reported
that an estimated 12 tons of DU had caused irreparable damage to the Yugoslavian
environment, with agriculture, livestock and air water, and public health
all profoundly damaged.38
- Scientists confirm that citizens of the Balkans are excreting
uranium in their urine.39 In 2001, a Yugoslavian pathologist reported that
hundreds of Bosnians have died of cancer from NATO's DU bombardment.40
Many NATO peacekeepers in the Balkans now suffer ill health. Their
leukemias, cancers and other maladies are dubbed the "Balkans Syndrome."
Richard Coghill predicts that DU weapons used in Balkans campaign will
result in at least 10,000 cases of fatal cancer.41
- U.S. citizens at home are also paying a heavy price
for criminal militarism gone mad. DOD is a pollution monster. The General
Accounting Office (GAO) found 9,181 dangerous military sites in USA that
will require $billions to rehabilitate. The GAO reports that DOD has been
both slothful and deceitful in its clean-up obligations.42 The Pentagon
is now pressing Congress to exempt it from all environmental laws so that
it may pollute and poison free from liability.43
- The Navy uses prime fishing grounds off the coast of
Washington state to test fire DU ammunition. In January, Washington State
Rep. Jim McDermott chastised the Navy: "On one hand you have required
soldiers to have DU safety training and to wear protective gear when handling
DU...and submarines must stay clear of DU-contaminated waters. These policies
indicate there is cause for concern....On the other hand the Department
of Defense has repeatedly denied that DU poses any danger whatsoever. There
has been no remorse about leaving tons of DU equipment in the soil in foreign
countries, and there appears to be no remorse about leaving it in the waters
of your own country."44
- DU has been used in military practice maneuvers in Indiana,
Florida, New Mexico, Massachusetts, Maryland and Puerto Rico. After the
Navy tested DU weaponry on the Puerto Rican island of Vieques, one third
of the island's population developed serious illness. Many people show
high levels of uranium in their bodies. Hundreds have filed a class action
suit against the Navy for $100 million, claiming DU contamination has caused
- The Navy's Fallon Naval Air Station near Fallon, Nevada,
is a quagmire of 26 toxic waste sites. It is also a target practice zone
for DU bombs and missiles. Area residents report bizarre illnesses, including
17 children who have contracted leukemia within five years. A survey of
groundwater in the Fallon area showed nearly half of area wells are contaminated
with radioactive materials.46
- The materials for DU weaponry have been processed mainly
at three nuclear plants in Kentucky, Ohio and Tennessee, where workers
handling uranium contaminated with plutonium have suffered for decades
with cancers and debilitating maladies similar to Gulf War Syndrome.47
- Emboldened by power-grabbing successes made possible
by his administration's devious 9-11 project, President Bush asserts that
the U.S. has the right to attack any nation it deems a potential threat.
He told West Point in 2002, "If we wait for threats to fully materialize,
we will have waited too long."48 Thus, it is certain that Bush-Cheney
future pre-emptive nuclear wars are lined up like idling jetson a runway.
Both Cheney's Halliburton Corp. and the Bush family's Carlyle Group are
profiteers in U.S. defense contracts, so endless war is just good business.49
- The Washington Post reported that the Pentagon will create
special nuclear weapons for use on North Korea's underground nuclear facilities.50
Next August, U.S. war makers will meet to consolidate plans for a new generation
of "mini," "micro" and "tiny" nuclear bombs
and bunker busters. These will be added to the U.S. arsenal perhaps for
use against non-nuclear third-world nations such as Iran, Syria, Lebanon.51
- The solution? Americans must stop electing ruthless
criminals to rule this nation. We must convince fellow citizens that villains
like Saddam Hussein are made in the U.S. as rationale for endless corporate
war profits. Saddam was placed in power by the CIA.52 For years U.S. government
agencies, under auspices of George Bush Sr., supplied him with chemical
and biological weapons.53 Our national nuclear laboratories, along with
Unisys, Dupont and Hewlett-Packard, sold Saddam materials for his nuclear
program.54 Dick Cheney was CEO of Halliburton in the late 90s when its
subsidiaries signed $73 million in new contracts to further supply Saddam.55
The wicked villain of Iraq was nurtured for decades as a cash-cow by U.S.
- If America truly supports its troops, it must stop sending
them into nuclear holocaust for the enrichment of thugs. Time is running
out. If the DU-maniacs at the Pentagon and their coven of nuclear arms
peddlers are not harnessed, America will have no able-bodied fighting forces
left. All people of the earth will become grossly ill, hideously deformed
and short- lived. We must succeed in the critical imperative to face reality
and act decisively. Should we fail, there will be no place to hide from
Bush-Cheney's merciless nuclear orgies yet to come or from the inevitable
nuclear retaliation these orgies will surely breed.
- 1."DOD Launches Depleted Uranium Training,"
Linda Kozaryn, American Forces Press Service, 8-13-99.
- 2."Nukes of the Gulf War,"John Shirley, Zess@aol.com.
See this article in archives at www.gulfwarvets.com.
- 3. BBC News, "US To Use Depleted Uranium,"
March 18, 2003; U.S. General Accounting Office, Operation Desert Storm:
"Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams," 1-2-92.
- 4."Nukes of the Gulf War," op. cit.
- 5. Ibid.
- 6. "Invading Hiroshima," William Thomas,
- 7. "US Shells Leave Lethal Legacy," Toronto
Star, July 31, 1999; also "Radiation Tests for Peacekeepers in the
Balkans Exposed to Depleted Uranium," www.telegraph.co.uk, 12-31-02.
- 8. "Depleted Uranium May Stop Kidneys In Days,"
Rob Edwards, New Scientist.com, 3-12-02; also "Uranium Weapons
Too Hot to Handle," Rob Edwards, New Scientist.co.uk, 6-9-99.
- 9. "Navy Seeks Cash for More Tomahawks," David
Rennie in Washington, Telegraph Group Limited, 1-4-03, news.telegraph.co.uk.
- 10. "Going Nuclear in Iraq--DU Cancers Mount Daily,"
Ramzi Kysia, CounterPunch.org, 12-31-01.
- 11."Depleted Uranium Symptoms Match US Report As
Fears Spread," Peter Beaumont, The Observer (UK) 1-14-01, www.guardianlimited.co.uk.
- 12. "Gulf War Illnesses Affect 300,000 Vets,"
Ellen Tomson, Pioneer Press, www.pioneerplanet.com. See also American
Gulf War Veterans Association at www.gulfwarvets.com.
- 13. "2 of Every 5 Gulf War Vets Are On Disability:
209,000 Make VA Claims," World Net Daily, 1-28-03, WorldNetDaily.com.
- 14. "Research on Sick Gulf Vets Revisited, "New
York Times, 1-29-01; "Tests Show Gulf War Victims Have Uranium Poisoning,"
Jonathon Carr-Brown and Martin Meissonnier, The Sunday Times (UK) 9-3-02.
- 15. "Catastrophe: Ill Gulf Vets Contaminated Partners
With DU," The Halifax Herald Limited, Clare Mellor, 2-09-01. This
article is available in archives at www.rense.com.
- 16. "Iraqi Cancer, Birth Defects Blamed on US Depleted
Uranium," Seattle Post- Intelligencer, 11-12-02; "US Depleted
Uranium Yields Chamber of Horrors in Southern Iraq, Andy Kershaw, The
Independent (London) 12-4-01.
- 17. "The Environmental and Human Health Impacts
of the Gulf War Region with Special References to Iraq," Ross Mirkarimi,
The Arms Control Research Centre, May 1992. See also Gulf War Syndrome
Birth Defects in Iraq at www.web-light.nl/VISIE/extremedeformities.html.
- 18. "The Tiny Victims of Desert Storm, Has Our Country
Abandoned Them?," Life Magazine, November 1995; "Birth Defects
Killing Gulf War Babies," Los Angeles Times, 11-14-94; "Depleted
Uranium, The Lingering Poison," Alex Kirby, BBC News Online, 6-7-99.
- 19. "Depleted Uranium, A Killer Disaster,"
Travis Dunn, Disaster News.net, 12-29-02.
- 20. San Francisco Chronicle, 10-10-02.
- 21. "US To Use Depleted Uranium," BBC News,
- 22. "Depleted Uranium Symptoms Match US Report As
Fears Spread," Peter Beaumont, The Observer (UK) 1-14-01.
- 23. "Iraqi Cancer, Birth Defects Blamed on US Depleted
Uranium," Seattle Post- Intelligencer, 11-12-02.
- 24. "US To Use Depleted Uranium," BBC News,
- 25. US Army Environmental Policy Institute: Health and
Environmental Consequences of Depleted Uranium in the U.S. Army, Technical
Report, June 1995.
- 26. "Pentagon Depleted Uranium No Health Risk,"
Dr. Doug Rokke, 3-15-03; also "The Terrible, Tragic Toll of Depleted
Uranium," Address by Dr. Rokke before congressional leaders in Washington,
D.C.,12-30-02; also "Gulf War Casualties," Dr. Doug Rokke, www.traprockpeace.org.
- 27."Tests Show Gulf War Victims Have Uranium Poisoning,"
Sunday Times (UK), Jonathon Carr-Brown and Martin Meissonnier, 9-3-00.
- 28. "The Pentagon's Radioactive Bullet: An Investigative
Report," Bill Mesler, The Nation, 5-28-99, see www.thenation.com/
- 29. "Tactical Nukes Deployed In Afghanistan,"
World Net Daily, 10-7-01. 30. Ibid.
- 31. "The B-61 Bomb,The Burrowing Nuke" George
Smith,VillageVoice.com 12-29-02.; also "Bunker-busting US Tactical
Nuclear Bombs, Nowhere to Hide," Kennedy Grey, Wired.com, 10-9-01.
- 32."Perpetual Death From America," Mohammed
Daud Miraki, Afghan-American Interviews, 2-24-03; also "Dying of
Thirst," Fred Pearce, New Scientist, 11-17-2001.
- 33. Ibid.
- 34. "Afghanistan Displaces Myanmar as Top Heroin
Producer," Agence France-Presse, 3-01-03. This article is at www.copvcia.com.;also
"Opium Trade Flourishing In the `New Afghanistan,'" Reuters,
- 35. "The Bush-Cheney Drug Empire," Michael
C. Ruppert, Nexus Magazine, February-March 2000; The Politics of Heroin:
CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, Alfred W. McCoy, Lawrence Hill
& Co., revised edition due May 2003; Drugging of America, Rodney Stich,
Diablo Western Press, 1999; "Blood for Oil, Drugs for Arms,"
Bob Djurdjevic, Truth In Media, April 2000, www.truthinmedia.org. 36. ABC
News, February 27, 2003.
- 37. Compromised, Clinton Bush and the CIA, Terry Reed
and John Cummings, S.P.I. Books, 1994; The Clinton Chronicles and The
Mena Cover-up, Citizens for Honest Government, 1996; "The Crimes
of Mena, Grey Money," Ozark Gazette, 1995 (see www.copvcia.com.)
- 38. "Damage to Yugoslav Environment is Immense,
Says a UN Report," Bob Djurdjevic, 7-4-99, truthinmedia.org. This
report was submitted to the UN Security Council on June 9, 1999; also,
"New Depleted Uranium Study Shows Clear Damage," BBC News,8-28-99;
also "NATO Issued Warning About Toxic Ammo," Associated Press,
- 39. CounterPunch.org, 12-28-01.
- 40. "Hundreds Died of Cancer After DU Bombing--Doctor,"
- 41."Depleted Uranium Threatens Balkan Cancer Epidemic,"
BBC News, 7-30-99.
- 42. "Many Defense Sites Still Hazardous,"
Associated Press, 9-24-02; also Old US Weapons Called Hidden Danger, Los
Angeles Times, 11-25-02.
- 43. "Pentagon Seeks Freedom to Pollute Land, Air
and Sea," Andrew Gumbel in L.A., 3-13-03, Independent Digital (UK)
- 44. "Radioactive DU Ammo Is Tested in Fish Areas,"
Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 1-11-03; Letter from Rep. McDermott to Department
of the Navy: see "Navy Fired DU Rounds Into Waters Off Coast of Washington,"
- 45."Cancer Rates Soar From US Military Use of DU
On `Enchanted Island,'" www.telegraph.co.uk, 2-5-01; also "Navy
Shells With Depleted Uranium Fired in Puerto Rico," Fox News Online,
- 46. "The Fallon, NV Cancer Cluster And a US Navy
Bombing," Jeffrey St. Clair, CounterPunch.org, 8-10-02.
- 47. "DU Shells Are Made of A Potentially Lethal
Cocktail of Nuclear Waste," Jonathon Carr-Brown, www.sunday-times.co.uk,
- 48. "Preventative War Sets Perilous Precedent,"
Helen Thomas, Hearst Newspapers, 3-20-03.
- 49. PIGS at the Trough, Arriana Huffington, Random House,
2003 (New York Times best seller.); also "The Best Enemies Money
Can Buy, From Hitler to Saddam Hussein to Osama bin Laden Insider Connections
and the Bush Family's Partnership With Killers of Americans;" Mike
Ruppert, From the Wilderness,10-10-01; also "Bush Sr.'s Carlyle
Group Gets Fat on War and Conflict," Jamie Doward, The Observer (UK),
3-25-03; also "Halliburton Wins Contract for Iraq Oil Firefighting,
Reuters, 3-7-03; also "Cashing In-Fortunes in Profits Await Bush
Circle After Iraq War, Andrew Gumbel, The Independent (London) 9-15-02;
also "War Could Be Big Business for Halliburton," Reuters, 3-23-03.
- 50. "Pentagon Seeks a Nuclear Digger," Washington
Post, March 10, 2003.
- 51. "Remember: Bush Planed Iraq War Before Taking
Office," Neil Mackay, The Sunday Herald (UK) 3-27-03; also "US
Mini-Nukes Alarm Scientists," The Guardian (UK) 4-18-01; also "US
Nuclear First-Strike Plan--It Keeps Getting Scarier, Jeffrey Steinberg,
Executive Intelligence Review, 2-24-03.
- 52. Wall Street Journal, 8-16-90: The CIA supported
the Baath Party and installed Hussein as Iraqi dictator in 1968.
- 53. "United States Dual-Use Exports to Iraq and
Their Impact on the Health of Persian Gulf War Veterans," Senate
Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, 1992, 1994; "U.S.
Had Key Role in Iraq Buildup," Washington Post, 12-30-02.
- 54. "US Government, 24 US Corps Illegally Helped
Iraq Build Its WMD," Hugh Williamson in Berlin, Financial Times,
12-19-02; "Full List of US Weapons Suppliers To Iraq," Anu
de Monterice, email@example.com, 12-19-02.
- 55. Huffington, op. cit.
- Amy Worthington is a reporter for The Idaho Observer