- 1931 Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, under the auspices of the
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations, infects human subjects
with cancer cells. He later goes on to establish the U.S. Army Biological
Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama, and is named to the U.S.
Atomic Energy Commission. While there, he begins a series of radiation
exposure experiments on American soldiers and civilian hospital patients.
- 1932 The Tuskegee Syphilis Study begins. 200 black men
diagnosed with syphilis are never told of their illness, are denied treatment,
and instead are used as human guinea pigs in order to follow the progression
and symptoms of the disease. They all subsequently die from syphilis, their
families never told that they could have been treated.
- 1935 The Pellagra Incident. After millions of individuals
die from Pellagra over a span of two decades, the U.S. Public Health Service
finally acts to stem the disease. The director of the agency admits it
had known for at least 20 years that Pellagra is caused by a niacin deficiency
but failed to act since most of the deaths occured within poverty-striken
- 1940 Four hundred prisoners in Chicago are infected
with Malaria in order to study the effects of new and experimental drugs
- combat the disease. Nazi doctors later on trial at Nuremberg
cite this American study to defend their own actions during the Holocaust.
- 1942 Chemical Warfare Services begins mustard gas experiments
on approximately 4,000 servicemen. The experiments continue until 1945
and made use of Seventh Day Adventists who chose to become human guinea
pigs rather than serve on active duty.
- 1943 In response to Japan's full-scale germ warfare
program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick,
- 1944 U.S. Navy uses human subjects to test gas masks
and clothing. Individuals were locked in a gas chamber and exposed to mustard
gas and lewisite.
- 1945 Project Paperclip is initiated. The U.S. State
Department, Army intelligence, and the CIA recruit Nazi scientists and
offer them immunity and secret identities in exchange for work on top secret
government projects in the United States.
- 1945 "Program F" is implemented by the U.S.
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). This is the most extensive U.S. study of
the health effects of fluoride, which was the key chemical component in
atomic bomb production. One of the most toxic chemicals known to man, fluoride,
it is found, causes marked adverse effects to the central nervous system
but much of the information is squelched in the name of national security
because of fear that lawsuits would undermine full-scale production of
- 1946 Patients in VA hospitals are used as guinea pigs
for medical experiments. In order to allay suspicions, the order is given
to change the word "experiments" to "investigations"
or "observations" whenever reporting a medical study performed
in one of the nation's veteran's hospitals.
- 1947 Colonel E.E. Kirkpatrick of the U.S. Atomic Energy
Comission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947)
stating that the agency will begin administering intravenous doses of radioactive
substances to human subjects.
- 1947 The CIA begins its study of LSD as a potential
weapon for use by American intelligence. Human subjects (both civilian
and military) are used with and without their knowledge.
- 1950 Department of Defense begins plans to detonate
nuclear weapons in desert areas and monitor downwind residents for medical
problems and mortality rates.
- 1950 I n an experiment to determine how susceptible an
American city would be to biological attack, the U.S. Navy sprays a cloud
of bacteria from ships over San Franciso. Monitoring devices are situated
throughout the city in order to test the extent of infection. Many residents
become ill with pneumonia-like symptoms.
- 1951 Department of Defense begins open air tests using
disease-producing bacteria and viruses. Tests last through 1969 and there
is concern that people in the surrounding areas have been exposed.
- 1953 U.S. military releases clouds of zinc cadmium sulfide
gas over Winnipeg, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Fort Wayne, the Monocacy River
Valley in Maryland, and Leesburg, Virginia. Their intent is to determine
how efficiently they could disperse chemical agents.
- 1953 Joint Army-Navy-CIA experiments are conducted in
which tens of thousands of people in New York and San Francisco are exposed
to the airborne germs Serratia marcescens and Bacillus glogigii.
- 1953 CIA initiates Project MKULTRA. This is an eleven
year research program designed to produce and test drugs and biological
agents that would be used for mind control and behavior modification. Six
of the subprojects involved testing the agents on unwitting human beings.
- 1955 The CIA, in an experiment to test its ability to
infect human populations with biological agents, releases a bacteria withdrawn
from the Army's biological warfare arsenal over Tampa Bay, Fl.
- 1955 Army Chemical Corps continues LSD research, studying
its potential use as a chemical incapacitating agent. More than 1,000 Americans
participate in the tests, which continue until 1958.
- 1956 U.S. military releases mosquitoes infected with
Yellow Fever over Savannah, Ga and Avon Park, Fl. Following each test,
Army agents posing as public health officials test victims for effects.
- 1958 LSD is tested on 95 volunteers at the Army's Chemical
Warfare Laboratories for its effect on intelligence.
- 1960 The Army Assistant Chief-of-Staff for Intelligence
(ACSI) authorizes field testing of LSD in Europe and the Far East. Testing
of the european population is code named Project THIRD CHANCE; testing
of the Asian population is code named Project DERBY HAT.
- 1965 Project CIA and Department of Defense begin Project
MKSEARCH, a program to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior
through the use of mind-altering drugs.
- 1965 Prisoners at the Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia
are subjected to dioxin, the highly toxic chemical component of Agent Orange
used in Viet Nam. The men are later studied for development of cancer,
which indicates that Agent Orange had been a suspected carcinogen all along.
- 1966 CIA initiates Project MKOFTEN, a program to test
the toxicological effects of certain drugs on humans and animals.
- 1966 U.S. Army dispenses Bacillus subtilis variant niger
throughout the New York City subway system. More than a million civilians
are exposed when army scientists drop lightbulbs filled with the bacteria
onto ventilation grates.
- 1967 CIA and Department of Defense implement Project
MKNAOMI, successor to MKULTRA and designed to maintain, stockpile and test
biological and chemical weapons.
- 1968 CIA experiments with the possibility of poisoning
drinking water by injecting chemicals into the water supply of the FDA
in Washington, D.C.
- 1969 Dr. Robert MacMahan of the Department of Defense
requests from congress $10 million to develop, within 5 to 10 years, a
synthetic biological agent to which no natural immunity exists.
- 1970 Funding for the synthetic biological agent is obtained
under H.R. 15090. The project, under the supervision of the CIA, is carried
out by the Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick, the army's top
secret biological weapons facility. Speculation is raised that molecular
biology techniques are used to produce AIDS-like retroviruses.
- 1970 United States intensifies its development of "ethnic
weapons" (Military Review, Nov., 1970), designed to selectively target
and eliminate specific ethnic groups who are susceptible due to genetic
differences and variations in DNA.
- 1975 The virus section of Fort Detrick's Center for
Biological Warfare Research is renamed the Fredrick Cancer Research Facilities
and placed under the supervision of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)
. It is here that a special virus cancer program is initiated by the U.S.
Navy, purportedly to develop cancer-causing viruses. It is also here that
retrovirologists isolate a virus to which no immunity exists. It is later
named HTLV (Human T-cell Leukemia Virus).
- 1977 Senate hearings on Health and Scientific Research
confirm that 239 populated areas had been contaminated with biological
agents between 1949 and 1969. Some of the areas included San Francisco,
Washington, D.C., Key West, Panama City, Minneapolis, and St. Louis.
- 1978 Experimental Hepatitis B vaccine trials, conducted
by the CDC, begin in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Ads for research
subjects specifically ask for promiscuous homosexual men.
- 1981 First cases of AIDS are confirmed in homosexual
men in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco, triggering speculation
that AIDS may have been introduced via the Hepatitis B vaccine
- 1985 According to the journal Science (227:173-177),
HTLV and VISNA, a fatal sheep virus, are very similar, indicating a close
taxonomic and evolutionary relationship.
- 1986 According to the Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences (83:4007-4011), HIV and VISNA are highly similar and share
all structural elements, except for a small segment which is nearly identical
to HTLV. This leads to speculation that HTLV and VISNA may have been linked
to produce a new retrovirus to which no natural immunity exists.
- 1986 A report to Congress reveals that the U.S. Government's
current generation of biological agents includes: modified viruses, naturally
occurring toxins, and agents that are altered through genetic engineering
to change immunological character and prevent treatment by all existing
- 1987 Department of Defense admits that, despite a treaty
banning research and development of biological agents, it continues to
operate research facilities at 127 facilities and universities around the
- 1990 More than 1500 six-month old black and hispanic
babies in Los Angeles are given an "experimental" measles vaccine
that had never been licensed for use in the United States. CDC later admits
that parents were never informed that the vaccine being injected to their
children was experimental.
- 1994 With a technique called "gene tracking,"
Dr. Garth Nicolson at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX discovers
that many returning Desert Storm veterans are infected with an altered
strain of Mycoplasma incognitus, a microbe commonly used in the production
of biological weapons. Incorporated into its molecular structure is 40
percent of the HIV protein coat, indicating that it had been man-made.
- 1994 Senator John D. Rockefeller issues a report revealing
that for at least 50 years the Department of Defense has used hundreds
of thousands of military personnel in human experiments and for intentional
exposure to dangerous substances. Materials included mustard and nerve
gas, ionizing radiation, psychochemicals, hallucinogens, and drugs used
during the Gulf War .
- 1995 U.S. Government admits that it had offered Japanese
war criminals and scientists who had performed human medical experiments
salaries and immunity from prosecution in exchange for data on biological
- 1995 Dr. Garth Nicolson, uncovers evidence that the
biological agents used during the Gulf War had been manufactured in Houston,
TX and Boca Raton, Fl and tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of
- 1996 Department of Defense admits that Desert Storm
soldiers were exposed to chemical agents.
- 1997 Eighty-eight members of Congress sign a letter
demanding an investigation into bioweapons use & Gulf War Syndrome.
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