- 1891 The Society of the Elect and the Association of
Helpers - (also known as the "Secret Society,"), was created
by Cecil Rhodes, Alfred Milner, William T. Stead, Reginald Baliol Brett,
and Lord Esher, in London. Rhodes died in 1902, leaving the society, and
his fortune, under the control of Milner, who established the Rhodes Scholar
program. Good background here.
- 1910 The Round Table - a periodical, first published
by Milner's "Secret Society" for Britain's intellectual community.
The writers, and those associated with the publication became known as
the Round Table Group, and later, the Chatham House crowd. Comprehensive
- 1912 Edward Mandell House - publishes Philip Dru: Administrator,a
novel describing how the world could best be governed by a benevolent administrator.
House traveled in Europe in 1909, and met Woodrow Wilson November 25, 1911.
Chronology: Met Sir Edward Grey (member of Milner's group) in 1913..
- 1913 Woodrow Wilson, U.S. President - Edward Mandell
House served as Wilson's campaign manager, and then as chief advisor. Franklin
D. Roosevelt appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy. Federal Reserve
Act (M) enacted - creating the first "central bank" in America.
Paul Warberg, whose family controlled the Reichsbank in Germany, was the
architect of the system.
- 1914 World War I Begins - Wilson campaigned against
U.S. entry into the war, then entered the war in 1917, one year before
- 1918 Wilson's 14 Points - presented to a joint session
of Congress on January 8. The document was developed by Colonel Mandell
House and advisors known as the "Inquiry." The League of Nations
- first proposed in The Round Table, in December, in an article entitled
The League of Nations: A Practical Suggestion, written by Edward Mandell
House and Lionel Curtis, a member of the original Rhodes/Milner "Secret
- 1919 Paris Peace Conference - House is Wilson's chief
deputy at the conference where he expanded his association with leaders
of the Milner group. Genesis of the CFR and RIIA - At a meeting on May
30, at the Majestic Hotel in Paris, Edward M. House, Lionel Curtis, Lord
Eustace Percy, Harold Temperley, Herbert Hoover, Christian Herter, James
T. Shotwell (Columbia), Charles Seymore (Yale), Archibald C. Coolidge (Harvard),
were among 50 individuals who decided to create the Council on Foreign
Relations in the U.S., and the Royal Institute of International Affairs
in London. The Treaty of Versailles - signed June 28, ended the war and
incorporated The Covenant of the League of Nations as the first 30 Articles
- very much as had been proposed by House and Curtis.
- 1920 League of Nations rejected by U.S. Senate - despite
herculean efforts on both sides of the Atlantic. Royal Institute of International
Affairs - organized by the Milner group, housed at the Chatham House in
- 1921 Council on Foreign Relations - organized as U.S.
counterpart to Royal Institute of International Affairs. John W. Davis,
attorney to J.P. Morgan, was first president. Paul Warberg and J.D. Rockefeller
were among initial funders. Began publishing Foreign Affairs in 1922. Described
by Senator Barry Goldwater in 1979.
- 1925 Mein Kampf - published by Adolf Hitler.
- 1929 Stock Market Crash - Sets the stage for world wide
depression, international response, and another war.
- 1930 Bank of International Settlements (M) - created
in Basel, Switzerland. J.P. Morgan & Company, and others involved with
the creation of the Federal Reserve, were among the founders.
- 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt - begins his presidency amid
the great depression. "The New Deal" was formulated by leftist,
Henry A. Wallace, Secretary of Agriculture, and Secretary of State, Cordell
Hulll, who, as a Senator, supported Wilson's League of Nations. Hull began
drafting a United Nations Charter two weeks after Pearl Harbor.
- 1933 The Wilderness Society - founded by Bob Marshall,
- 1936 National Wildlife Federation - founded.
- 1938 World marches toward war - A chronology of events
leading to World War II, the event which gave rise to the United Nations.
- 1941 FDR delivers "Four Freedoms" speech -
(January 6), and the Atlantic Conference (August 14), embody the idea of
disarming sovereign nations under international authority. Declaration
of War on Japan (December 8); Declaration of War on Germany (December 11).
- 1942 Declaration by "United Nations" - first
official use of the name "United Nations," suggested by Roosevelt.
Chronnology of related events.
- 1943 Moscow Conference - Articles 5 - 7 refer to "United
Nations" and post-war permanent organization. United Nations Association
- created by Eleanor Roosevelt.
- 1944 Bretton Woods Agreements - created the World Bank
(M), and the International Monetary Fund (M). Henry Morganthau delivered
the closing address. (Background and conference details.) Dumbarton Oaks
Conversations - produce the draft recommendations for a United Nations
organization. The U.S. Team, led by Edward Stettinius, included Alger Hiss,
Ralph Bunche, Leo Pasvolsky, and Grayson Kirk. Overview of the meeting.
- 1945 Yalta Conference - (February) reached agreement
on U.N. draft recommendations and set the date for U.N. conference. Germany
surrenders (May 7). U.N. Charter - signed June 26, in San Francisco. Ratified
by Senate (89-2) July 28. International Court of Justice - established
in The Hague. August 6, & 9, atomic bombs dropped on Japan. Japan surrenders
(August 14). UNESCO - created in London, November 16.
- 1946 U.S. joins UNESCO - Julian Huxley, president of
the Eugenics Society, and author of "The New Divinity", first
Director. Socialist Joseph Needham, appointed Director of Natural Science.
World Health Organization created.
- 1947 World Federalist Association - founded in Asheville,
North Carolina World Federalist Movement - founded in Switzerland.
- 1948 IUCN Created - by Julian Huxley, in Geneva. Headquarters
in Gland, Switzerland The U.S. Government, and several agencies are members.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights - adopted by U.N. General Assembly
Environmental Education - concept introduced to the U.N. by the IUCN.
- 1949 UNESCO Publication 356 (M) - "Toward World
- 1951 The Nature Conservancy - organized.
- 1959 United Nations Development Program - evolved to
- 1960 Temple of Understanding - organized in New York.
Dr. Robert Muller on Advisory Board.
- 1961 Freedom From War (M) - State Department Publication
7277, setting forth U.S. disarmament policy in favor of U.N. peacekeeping.
World Wildlife Fund - organized by Julian Huxley and IUCN.
- 1964 Wilderness Act of 1964 - and how it came to be.
UNCTAD - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development established.
- 1968 ECOSOC Resolution 1296 - directed by Dr. Robert
Muller, establishes "Consultative Status" for NGOs (non-government
organizations). Lucis Trust among first NGOs accredited. Club of Rome -
organized, and published Limits to Growth.
- 1970 First Earth Day - founder, Gaylord Nelson. Another
view of Earth Day. World Conference on Religion and Peace - opened headquartrs
at the U.N. Center. Held conference in Kyoto, Japan, was accredited by
ECOSOC in 1973. Environmental Protection Agency - created.
- 1971 RAMSAR Treaty on Wetlands - signed in Ramsar, Iran.
IUCN driving force behind RAMSAR.
- 1972 Clean Water Act - passed by Congress. Wetland definition
expanded by lawsuit brought by National Wildlife Federation, resulting
in "Tulloch" decision in 1993. Tulloch overturned in 1997. World
Heritage Convention - adopted by UNESCO. Technical Review. Earth Summit
I - First U.N. Conference on Environment. Maurice Strong Conference leader.
James Parks Morton became dean of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine
in New York City.
- 1973 CITES Signed - (March 3 - Convention on International
Trade in Endangered Species). IUCN and WWF driving force behind CITES.
Endangered Species Act - became U.S. law. U.N. Environment Program - launched
with Maurice Strong first Executive Director. Trilateral Commission - formed,
most participants also members of Council on Foreign Relations. UNEP's
Regional Seas Program - expands environmental outreach. Survey of U.S.
- 1975 Belgrade Charter - Global Framework for Environmental
Education.. Promoted by NAAEE
- 1976 HABITAT I - adopts U.N. policy on land. William
K. Reilly and Carla Hills signed for U.S. Federal Land Policy Management
Act - adopted. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights - becomes
international law. UNIFEM - created to promote womens' rights.
- 1978 Global Taxation - first proposed by James Tobin.
- 1979 U.S. MAB (M) - (Man and the Biosphere Program)
launched by agency agreement with UNESCO. First World Climate Conference
- held in Geneva, Switzerland. World Core Curriculum - introduced by Dr.
Robert Muller, through the Robert Mullers Schools. CEDAW - (Convention
on the Elemination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women) adopted
by the U.N. General Assembly.
- 1980 World Conservation Strategy - published jointly
by UNEP, IUCN, and WWF. MacBride Commission - (International Commission
for the Study of Communications Problems. Report: Many Voices, One World.
Chaired by Sean MacBride. Early efforts to control communications. Brandt
Commission - (Independent Commission on International Development) chaired
by Willy Brandt. Report: North-South: A Program for Survival linked economic
equity to development and was beginning of "sustainable development"
- 1982 Palme Commission - (Independent Commission on Disarmament
and Security Issues). Report: Common Security: A Blueprint For Survival
linked security to development. Chaired by Olof Palme. World Resources
Institute - organized with help from Russell E. Train.. Gustave Speth first
director. World Charter for Nature - precursor to the Earth Charter. U.N.
Convention on the Law of the seas - which created the International Seabed
- 1985 U.N. Convention on Ozone Depleting Substances -
adopted in Vienna, Austria.
- 1987 Montreal Protocol - converts voluntary Ozone Treaty
into international law. Brundtland Commission - (World Commission on Environment
and Development). Report: Our Common Future, which defined "sustainable
development". Chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland. Members included Shridath
Ramphal and Maurice Strong (M). Institute for Global Communications - created
by the Tides Fouundtion to facilitate NGO communications.
- 1988 Global Forum on Human Survival - held in Oxford,
England. Co-sponsored by the Temple of Understanding and the U.N. Committee
on Parliamentarians and Population, chaired by James Parks Morton. James
Lovelock was the featured speaker. Complete background here (M). Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change - created by WMO and ENEP.
- 1989 Berlin Wall falls - (November 9), USSR begins to
disintegrate. Convention on Rights of the Child - adopted by the U.N. Climate
Action Network - created in Germany to promote climate treaty.
- 1990 Global Forum on Human Survival - held in Moscow,
hosted by Mikhail Gorbechev, and Javier Perez de Cuellar, chaired by James
Parks Morton. World Summit for Children - held in New York; adopted Plan
of Action. Women's Environment and Development Organization (WEDO) - created
by Bella Abzug. International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives
(ICLEI) - created at the invitation of the U.N.,to advance Agenda 21 at
the local level.
- 1991 Caring for the Earth - published jointly by UNEP,
IUCN, and WWF. Stockholm Initiative on Global Security and Governance -
origin of Commission on Global Goverance.
- 1992 Commission on Global Governance - established.
Willy Brandt, with the blessings of Boutros Boutros-Ghali, appointed Ingvar
Carlsson and Shridath Ramphal (IUCN president) as co-chairs. Global Biodiversity
Strategy - published jointly by UNEP, IUCN, WWF, and WRI. U.N. Conference
on Environment and Development (UNCED) - Rio de Janeiro. Chaired by Maurice
Strong. Produced: Agenda 21; Convention on Biological Diversity; Framework
Convention on Climate Change; Statement of Forest Principles; and the Rio
Declaration. U.N. Commission on Sustainable Development - created to advance
Agenda 21. Earth Council - created in Costa Rica by Maurice Strong to coordinate
global implementation of Agenda 21 through "National Councils"
on Sustainable Development. National Religious Partnership for the Environment
- outgrowth of Temple of Understanding's "Joint Appeal." The
Wildlands Project - published by Dave Foreman, co-founder of Earth First!.
Project seeks to convert half of America to wilderness.
- 1993 President's Council on Sustainable Development
- created by Executive Order No. 12852 to implement Agenda 21 in America,
co-chaired by WRI president, Jonathan Lash. First Meridian Conference on
Global Governance - held in Bolinas, California. World Conference on Human
Rights - in Vienna. Green Cross - founded by Mikhail Gorbachev. BIONET
- created to promote Convention on Biological Diversity.
- 1994 World Trade Organization - formed at Urquay round
of GATT negotiations. U.N. Conference on Population and Development - in
- 1995 World Summit on Social Development - in Copenhagen.
Commission on Sustainable Development - met in New York. Fourth World Women's
Congress - in Beijing. Documents. State of the World Forum - San Francisco,
hosted by Mikhail Gorbachev and Maruice Strong. Our Global Neighborhood
- final report released by the Commission on Global Governance. Analysis
- of Commission report. Global Biodiversity Assessment - released by UNEP.
Coordinated by Robert Watson.
- 1996 U.N. Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II)
- Istanbul. Community Sustainability (M), U.S. HUD's report to the conference.
Instanbul Declaration on Human Settlements. Campaign for U.N. Reform -
organized to lobby for global governance.
- 1997 Al Gore's report - to the U.N. at Rio +5. A broader
view of Agenda 21 implementation. Kyoto Protocol - Adopted in Kyoto, Japan.
Converts voluntary climate change treaty to binding international law.
On-site reports. International Conference on Environment and Society -
sponsored by UNESCO in Thessaloniki. Survey of environmnetal education
- 1998 International Criminal Court - created in Rome.
On-site reports from Rome. International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA)
- created to lobby for U.N. gun control. U.N. Climate Change Conference
- in Buenos Aires.
- 1999 Charter for Global Democracy - consolidates recommendations
of Commission on Global Governance into 12 principles. World NGO Conference
- held in Canada to promote plan for "The Peoples Assembly."
U.N. Climate Change Conference - in Bonn.
- 2000 Earth Charter - final draft. NGO Millennium Forum
- New York, precursor to "The People's Assembly." Millennium
Assembly - New York.
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