- APPENDIX 1
- The Recommendations
- This appendix lists all of the Phase III Report's major
recommendations in order of their presentation. The recommendations are
numbered sequentially and grouped by Section. The page on which the recommendation
appears in the report is noted in the box. Those recommendations in red
type indicate recommendations on which Congressional action is required
for implementation. Those in blue type can be implemented by Executive
Order. Those in green type can be implemented by the head of an Executive
Branch department or agency, or by the Congressional leadership, as appropriate.
- Securing the National Homeland
- 1: The President should develop a comprehensive strategy
to heighten America's ability to prevent and protect against all forms
of attacks on the homeland, and to respond to such attacks if prevention
and protection fail. (p. 11)
- 2: The President should propose, and Congress should
agree, to create a National Homeland Security Agency (NHSA) with responsibility
for planning, coordinating, and integrating various U.S. government activities
involved in homeland security. They should use the Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA) as a key building block in this effort. (p. 15)
- 3: The President should propose to Congress the transfer
of the Customs Service, the Border Patrol, and Coast Guard to the National
Homeland Security Agency, while preserving them as distinct entities. (p.
- 4: The President should ensure that the National Intelligence
Council include homeland security and asymmetric threats as an area of
analysis; assign that portfolio to a National Intelligence Officer; and
produce National Intelligence Estimates on these threats. (p. 23)
- 5: The President should propose to Congress the establishment
of an Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Security within the Office
of the Secretary of Defense, reporting directly to the Secretary. (p. 23)
- 6: The Secretary of Defense, at the President's direction,
should make homeland security a primary mission of the National Guard,
and the Guard should be reorganized, properly trained, and adequately equipped
to undertake that mission. (p. 25)
- 7: Congress should establish a special body to deal with
homeland security issues, as has been done with intelligence oversight.
Members should be chosen for their expertise in foreign policy, defense,
intelligence, law enforcement, and appropriations. This body should also
include members of all relevant Congressional committees as well as ex-officio
members from the leadership of both Houses of Congress. (p. 28)
- Recapitalizing America's Strengths in Science and
- 8: The President should propose, and the Congress should
support, doubling the U.S. government's investment in science and technology
R&D by 2010. (p. 32)
- 9: The President should empower his Science Advisor to
establish non-military R&D objectives that meet changing national needs,
and to be responsible for coordinating budget development within the relevant
departments and agencies. (p. 34)
- 10: The President should propose, and the Congress should
fund, the reorganization of the national laboratories, providing individual
laboratories with new mission goals that minimize overlap. (p. 37)
- 11: The President should propose, and Congress should
pass, a National Security Science and Technology Education Act (NSSTEA)
with four sections: reduced-interest loans and scholarships for students
to pursue degrees in science, mathematics, and engineering; loan forgiveness
and scholarships for those in these fields entering government or military
service; a National Security Teaching Program to foster science and math
teaching at the K- 12 level; and increased funding for professional development
for science and math teachers. (p. 41)
- 12: The President should direct the Department of Education
to work with the states to devise a comprehensive plan to avert a looming
shortage of quality teachers. This plan should emphasize raising teacher
compensation, improving infrastructure support, reforming the certification
process, and expanding existing programs targeted at districts with especially
acute problems. (p. 43)
- 13: The President and Congress should devise a targeted
program to strengthen the historically black colleges and universities
in our country, and should particularly support those that emphasize science,
mathematics, and engineering. (p. 45)
- Institutional Redesign
- 14: The President should personally guide a top-down
strategic planning process and delegate authority to the National Security
Advisor to coordinate that process. (p. 48)
- 15: The President should prepare and present to the Congress
an overall national security budget to serve the critical goals that emerge
from the NSC strategic planning process. Separately, the President should
continue to submit budgets for individual national security departments
and agencies for Congressional review and appropriation. (p. 49)
- 16: The National Security Council (NSC) should be responsible
for advising the President and for coordinating the multiplicity of national
security activities, broadly defined to include economic and domestic law
enforcement activities as well as the traditional national security agenda.
The NSC Advisor and staff should resist the temptation to assume a central
policymaking and operational role. (p. 50)
- 17: The President should propose to the Congress that
the Secretary of Treasury be made a statutory member of the National Security
Council. (p. 51)
- 18: The President should abolish the National Economic
Council, distributing its domestic economic policy responsibilities to
the Domestic Policy Council and its international economic responsibilities
to the National Security Council. (p. 52)
- 19: The President should propose to the Congress a plan
to reorganize the State Department, creating five Under Secretaries, with
responsibility for overseeing the regions of Africa, Asia, Europe, Inter-America,
and Near East/South Asia, and redefining the responsibilities of the Under
Secretary for Global Affairs. These new Under Secretaries would operate
in conjunction with the existing Under Secretary for Management. (p. 54)
- 20: The President should propose to the Congress that
the U.S. Agency for International Development be consolidated into the
State Department. (p. 55)
- 21: The Secretary of State should give greater emphasis
to strategic planning in the State Department and link it directly to the
allocation of resources through the establishment of a Strategic Planning,
Assistance, and Budget Office. (p. 56)
- 22: The President should ask Congress to appropriate
funds to the State Department in a single integrated Foreign Operations
budget, which would include all foreign assistance programs and activities
as well as all expenses for personnel and operations. (p. 58)
- 23: The President should ensure that Ambassadors have
the requisite area knowledge as well as leadership and management skills
to function effectively. He should therefore appoint an independent, bipartisan
advisory panel to the Secretary of State to vet ambassadorial appointees,
career and non-career alike. (p. 62)
- 24: The Secretary of Defense should propose to Congress
a restructuring plan for the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for
Policy, which would abolish the office of the Assistant Secretary for Special
Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict (SOLIC), and create a new office
of an Assistant Secretary dedicated to Strategy and Planning (S/P). (p.
- 25: Based on a review of the core roles and responsibilities
of the staffs of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Staff,
the military services, and the CINCs, the Secretary of Defense should reorganize
and reduce those staffs by ten to fifteen percent. (p. 65)
- 26: The Secretary of Defense should establish a ten-year
goal of reducing infrastructure costs by 20 to 25 percent through outsourcing
and privatizing as many DoD support agencies as possible. (p. 66)
- 27: The Congress and the Secretary of Defense should
move the Quadrennial Defense Review to the second year of a Presidential
term. (p. 68)
- 28: The Secretary of Defense should introduce a new process
that would require the Services and defense agencies to compete for the
allocation of some resources within the overall Defense budget. (p. 69)
- 29: The Secretary of Defense should establish and employ
a two-track acquisition system, one for major acquisitions and a second,
"fast track" for a limited number of potential breakthrough systems,
especially those in the area of command and control. (p. 71)
- 30: The Secretary of Defense should foster innovation
by directing a return to the pattern of increased prototyping and testing
of selected weapons and support systems. (p. 72)
- 31: Congress should implement two-year defense budgeting
solely for the modernization element of the DoD budget (R&D/procurement)
because of its long-term character, and it should expand the use of multiyear
procurement. (p. 73)
- 32: Congress should modernize Defense Department auditing
and oversight requirements by rewriting relevant sections of U.S. Code,
Title 10, and the Federal Acquisition Regulations. (p. 75)
- 33: The Secretary of Defense should direct the DoD to
shift from the threat-based 2MTW force sizing process to one which measures
requirements against recent operational activity trends, actual intelligence
estimates of potential adversaries' capabilities, and national security
objectives as defined in the new administration's national security strategy-once
formulated. (p. 76)
- 34: The Defense Department should devote its highest
priority to improving and furthering expeditionary capabilities. (p. 78)
- 35: The President should establish an Interagency Working
Group on Space (IWGS) at the National Security Council to coordinate all
aspects of the nation's space policy, and place on the NSC staff those
with the necessary expertise in this area. (p. 80)
- 36: The President should order the setting of national
intelligence priorities through National Security Council guidance to the
Director of Central Intelligence. (p. 83)
- 37: The Director of Central Intelligence should emphasize
the recruitment of human intelligence sources on terrorism as one of the
intelligence community's highest priorities, and ensure that operational
guidelines are balanced between security needs and respect for American
values and principles. (p. 84)
- 38: The intelligence community should place new emphasis
on collection and analysis of economic and science/technology security
concerns, and incorporate more open source intelligence into analytical
products. Congress should support this new emphasis by increasing significantly
the National Foreign Intelligence Program (NFIP) budget for collection
and analysis. (p. 84)
- The Human Requirements for National Security
- 39: Congress should significantly expand the National
Security Education Act (NSEA) to include broad support for social sciences,
humanities, and foreign languages in exchange for military and civilian
service to the nation. (p. 89)
- 40: The Executive and Legislative Branches should cooperate
to revise the current Presidential appointee process by reducing the impediments
that have made high-level public service undesirable to many distinguished
Americans. Specifically, they should reduce the number of Senate confirmed
and non-career Senior Executive Service (SES) positions by 25 percent;
shorten the appointment process; and revise draconian ethics regulations.
- 41: The President should order the overhauling of the
Foreign Service system by revamping the examination process, dramatically
improving the level of on-going professional education, and making leadership
a core value of the State Department. (p. 95)
- 42: The President should order the elimination of recruitment
hurdles for the Civil Service, ensure a faster and easier hiring process,
and see to it that strengthened professional education and retention programs
are worthy of full funding by Congress. (p. 98)
- 43: The Executive Branch should establish a National
Security Service Corps (NSSC) to enhance civilian career paths, and to
provide a corps of policy experts with broad-based experience throughout
the Executive Branch. (p. 101)
- 44: Congress should significantly enhance the Montgomery
GI Bill, as well as strengthen recently passed and pending legislation
supporting benefits-including transition, medical, and homeownership-for
qualified veterans. (p. 106)
- 45: Congress and the Defense Department should cooperate
to decentralize military personnel legislation dictating the terms of enlistment/commissioning,
career management, retirement, and compensation. (p. 107)
- The Role of Congress
- 46: The Congressional leadership should conduct a thorough
bicameral, bipartisan review of the Legislative Branch relationship to
national security and foreign policy. (p. 110)
- 47: Congressional and Executive Branch leaders must build
programs to encourage individual members to acquire knowledge and experience
in both national security and foreign policy. (p. 111)
- 48: Congress should rationalize its current committee
structure so that it best serves U.S. national security objectives; specifically,
it should merge the current authorizing committees with the relevant appropriations
subcommittees. (p. 112)
- 49: The Executive Branch must ensure a sustained focus
on foreign policy and national security consultation with Congress and
devote resources to it. For its part, Congress must make consultation a
higher priority and form a permanent consultative group of Congressional
leaders as part of this effort. (p. 113)
- 50: The President should create an implementing mechanism
to ensure that the major recommendations of this Commission result in the
critical reforms necessary to ensure American national security and global
leadership over the next quarter century. (p. 111)
- APPENDIX 2
- Charter of the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st
- SEC. 1. ESTABLISHMENT AND PURPOSE.
- The Department of Defense recognizes that America should
advance its position as a strong, secure, and persuasive force for freedom
and progress in the world. Consequently, there is a requirement to: 1)
conduct a comprehensive review of the early 21st Century global security
environment, including likely trends and potential "wild cards";
2) develop a comprehensive overview of American strategic interests and
objectives for the security environment we will likely encounter in the
21st Century; 3) delineate a national security strategy appropriate to
that environment and the nation's character; 4) identify a range of alternatives
to implement the national security strategy, by defining the security goals
for American society, and by describing the internal and external policy
instruments required to apply American resources in the 21st Century; and
5) develop a detailed plan to implement the range of alternatives by describing
the sequence of measures necessary to attain the national security strategy,
to include recommending concomitant changes to the national security apparatus
as necessary. A Commission, the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st
Century (USCNS/21), will be established to fulfill this requirement, supported
by a Study Group. Two individuals who have national recognition and significant
depth of experience and public service will oversee the efforts of this
Commission and serve as its Co-chairpersons. The study effort shall be
conducted by a Study Group, composed of individuals who will be appointed
as Department of Defense (DoD) personnel, in accordance with Section VI
below. Based on the results of this study and the Commission's consideration
thereof, the USCNS/21 will advance practical recommendations that the President
of the United States, with the support of the Congress, could begin to
implement in the Fiscal Year 2002 budget, if desired.
- SEC. II. BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS
- (a) CO-CHAIRPERSONS.- The Secretary of Defense,
in consultation with the Assistant to the President for National Security
Affairs and the Secretary of State, shall select two Co-chairpersons to
oversee the study effort and to co-chair the U.S. Commission on National
Security/21st Century. The Co-chairpersons shall be prominent United States
citizens, with national recognition, significant depth of experience, and
prior public service.
- (b) MEMBERSHIP.- The Secretary of Defense, in
consultation with the Assistant to the President for National Security
Affairs and the Secretary of State, shall select 15-17 individuals to serve
as a board of Commissioners to the study, drawing on accomplished and prominent
United States citizens and reflecting a cross-section of American public
and private sector life.
- (c) OPERATION.- The Commissioners shall meet at
the discretion of the Co-chairpersons to provide visionary leadership and
guidance for the study effort, and to consider appropriate recommendations
to the Secretary of Defense and the President, based on the results of
the study. The Co-chairpersons shall provide oversight for the study effort.
The USCNS/21 will be chartered separately and operated as a Federal advisory
committee in accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Public
Law 92-463), as amended.
- (d) PERIOD OF APPOINTMENT; VACANCIES.- All Commissioners
shall be appointed for the life of the study effort. Vacancies shall be
filled in the same manner as the original appointment, in accordance with
the Commission's charter.
- SEC. III. DUTIES.
- (a) COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW.- The study will define
America's role and purpose in the first quarter of the 21st Century through
an integrated analysis, and identify the national security strategy in
political, economic, military, societal, and technological terms that must
be implemented for America to fulfill that role and achieve its purpose.
This study shall include the following:
- (1) A description of the national security environments
that the United States will likely encounter in the 21st Century, and an
evaluation of the security threats which can be reasonably expected in
political, economic, military, societal, and technological terms.
- (2) A comprehensive overview of American domestic and
international strategic interests and objectives for the security environment
we will likely encounter in the 21st Century.
- (3) Delineation of the national security strategy that
must be implemented to achieve America's objectives in the 21st Century.
- (4) Identification of the range of alternatives to implement
the national security strategy, by defining the domestic security goals
for American society, and by describing the internal and external policy
instruments required to apply American resources in the 21st Century.
- (5) Development of a detailed plan to implement the range
of alternatives by describing the sequence of measures necessary to attain
the national security strategy.
- (b) MATTERS TO BE CONSIDERED.- In carrying out
the study, the USCNS/21 shall develop specific findings and recommendations
for each of the following:
- (1) Identification of nations, supranational groups,
and trends that may assist the fulfillment of U.S national security strategy.
- (2) Identification of nations, supranational groups,
and trends that may pose military, economic, or technological threats to
fulfillment of the United States national security strategy.
- (3) Identification of societal forces that enable the
attainment of United States national security strategy, and recommendations
to exploit those forces.
- (4) Identification of societal forces that inhibit the
attainment of the United States national security strategy, and recommendations
to overcome those inhibitors.
- (5) Identification of the roles to be played by the Armed
Forces and Federal civilian agencies of the United States in attainment
of the United States national security strategy.
- (6) The adequacy of the current national security apparatus
to meet early 21st Century security challenges, and recommendations to
modify this apparatus as necessary.
- (7) Examination of existing and/or required international
security arrangements, to include recommendations for modification, as
- (8) Recommended course(s) of action to secure the active
support of an informed American public for the implementation of our national
security strategy in the 21st Century.
- SEC. IV. METHODOLOGY.
- The USCNS/21 will accomplish its mission in three phases,
as set forth below.
- (a) PHASE ONE.- Phase One will examine and describe
the kind of nation the United States will be in the early 21st Century
and the range of likely international security environments that we can
reasonably anticipate. The goal will be to establish the domestic and international
contexts in which the United States will exist in the next century. The
study will seek to identify the most likely domestic and international
trends, taking account of less likely or "wild card" events,
such as the spread of weapons of mass destruction, technological breakthroughs,
natural disasters, or regime changes abroad. This phase will predict the
possible international security environments with consideration of the
interrelationships of the various sectors involved. Phase One will terminate
with the submission by the Co-chairpersons, after consultation with the
board of Commissioners, of a report to the Secretary of Defense describing
the range of potential domestic and international environments as they
relate to national security.
- (b) PHASE TWO.- Existing national interests and
objectives will be reviewed and analyzed for applicability in the early
part of the next century. If appropriate, modifications will be recommended
to bring the policy objectives into line with the anticipated global environment.
Where necessary objectives and interests have not yet been clearly articulated
for security arenas in which the United States must function in the future,
the USCNS/21 will recommend appropriate objectives. These objectives should
encompass all critical American security concerns. Delineation of national
security strategy (or strategies) for the early part of the 21st Century
will complete Phase Two of the study. A proposed strategy will be constrained
by only the following factors: it must support attainment of our national
security objectives, it must be acceptable to the American people, and
it must be feasible within current (or projected) resource availability.
(For the purposes of this study, an acceptable national security strategy
is one that is reasonably consistent with the projected values and desires
of the American people, taking into account the ability of confident national
leaders to move public opinion in the direction of rational responses to
new national challenges). The goal of Phase Two is to describe America's
interests and objectives in a comprehensive, attainable, and supportable
national security strategy that gives the Executive and Legislative Branches
policy options for allocation of national resources and for domestic and
international strategic initiatives. Phase Two will terminate upon the
submission by the Co-chairpersons, after consultation with the board of
Commissioners, of a report to the Secretary of Defense which meets this
- (c) PHASE THREE.- As needed, the USCNS/21 will
propose measures to adapt existing national security structures or to create
new structures where none exists. These measures must be appropriate to
the range of anticipated international environments identified in Phase
One and the national security objectives identified in Phase Two. Selected
measures may require some modification of certain institutions, processes
and structures in order to improve their relevance in the first two decades
of the 2lst Century and enhance their positive impact upon the national
security process. When appropriate, cost and time estimates to complete
these improvements and a recommended sequence of actions will be provided.
The end result of Phase Three will be an institutional road map for the
early part of the 21st Century, provided as a report from the U.S. Commission
on National Security/21st Century to the Secretary of Defense, with detailed
recommendations for each major segment of the United States government's
national security apparatus.
- SEC. V. REPORTS.
- All reports shall be submitted in unclassified form,
but may include classified annexes. The Secretary of Defense will transmit
a copy of each report to the Congress.
- (a) PHASE ONE.- The Co-chairs shall submit to
the Secretary of Defense a report on Phase One of the study, as outlined
in Section IV(a), not later than September 15, 1999.
- (b) PHASE TWO.- The Co-chairs shall submit to
the Secretary of Defense a report on Phase Two of the study, as outlined
in Section IV(b), not later than April 14, 2000.
- (c) FINAL REPORT.- The Co-chairs shall submit
to the Secretary of Defense a final report, including assessments and recommendations
and the institutional road map outlined in Section IV(c), not later than
February 16, 2001.
- SEC.VI. PERSONNEL AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT.
- (a) ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPPORT SERVICES.- The
U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century will be supported by
the Study Group and its staff. The Study Group, as a DoD organizational
element, will receive administrative and other support services from the
Director, Administration and Management, including four individuals detailed
to support the Study Group, consistent with the budgetary parameters established
in Section VIII. Additional administrative and support services requested
by the Co-chairpersons or the Executive Director (which position is provided
for in paragraph (d)(1), below) in support of the USCNS/21 will be furnished
by DoD as necessary and appropriate. These support requirements will be
administered by the Director, Administration and Management, in conjunction
with other DoD officials, as appropriate.
- (b) SECURITY CLEARANCES.- Insofar as expeditious
processing of personnel security clearances is essential to the timely
completion of the study, DoD will expedite personnel security clearance
procedures for access to classified information for Study Group personnel
and staff to the extent permitted by law and Executive Order, when requested
by the Executive Director.
- (c) BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS APPOINTMENT AND COMPENSATION.-
Commissioners of the USCNS/21, including the Co-chairpersons, who are not
full-time officers or employees of the United States shall be appointed
by the Secretary of Defense as special government employees. Such members
may serve with or without compensation and shall be allowed travel expenses,
including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with the Board's
- (d) STUDY GROUP APPOINTMENT AND COMPENSATION.
- (1) EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR.- The Secretary of Defense,
upon advice of the Co-chairpersons, shall select an Executive Director.
The Executive Director shall be appointed to a limited term (not to exceed
three years), Senior Executive Service position within DoD. The Executive
Director shall supervise the Study Group and its staff, with full authority,
in accordance with applicable law and regulations, and merit system principles.
- (2) MEMBERSHIP.- The Secretary of Defense, in
consultation with the Assistant to the President for National Security
Affairs, the Secretary of State and the Executive Director, will select
sufficient individuals with diverse experience and expertise to fill positions
as members of the Study Group. All Study Group members shall be United
States citizens with widely-recognized expertise in fields relevant to
the Study Group's national security objectives. Members should be innovative
and creative practitioners or strategists in their respective fields of
endeavor. The Study Group members shall be appointed under an appropriate
authority which allows for an assignment of a temporary duration. Terms
for such appointments shall not exceed the length of the study, but may
be such shorter period of time as determined by the Executive Director.
Vacancies shall be filled by the Executive Director, with the approval
of the Secretary of Defense.
- (e) STAFF APPOINTMENT AND COMPENSATION.- The Executive
Director may select for appointment as DoD employees, in accordance with
paragraph VI(a), above, and applicable Civil Service laws and regulations
and DoD policies, up to twelve individuals. Selectees who are not currently
full time DoD military or civilian personnel will be given limited term
appointments for up to the length of the study, in accordance with section
VI(a) above, to support the study Group.
- (f) TEMPORARY AND INTERMITTENT SERVICES.- The
Executive Director may procure temporary and intermittent services under
section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code, at a rate of pay not to
exceed the daily rate of pay for a GS-15, step 10 in accordance with such
- SEC. VII. TERMINATION OF THE STUDY.
- The study will terminate not later than 30 days after
the Co-chairpersons submit the final report to the Secretary of Defense,
or no later than March 15, 2001, whichever is earlier.*50 SEC.
- Except as provided herein, the operating costs of the
study, including the compensation, travel, and per diem allowances for
the Commissioners and the Study Group members and staff, will be paid by
the Department of Defense. The overall cost for this project (excluding
the cost of the four detailees described in section VI(a) above) may not
exceed $10.44 Mil, without prior approval by the Secretary of Defense or
designee. These funds are expected to be obligated as follows: FY 1999-$1.43
Mil; FY 1999-$3.76 Mil; FY 2000-$3.73 Mil; and FY 2001-$1.52 Mil. William
S. Cohen, Secretary of Defense SEPT 2, 1999
- *1 Disclaimer: This Commission has striven successfully
to achieve consensus on all major issues, and each Commissioner stands
by all the major recommendations made in this report. However, as is to
be expected when discussing complex issues, not every Commissioner agrees
completely with every statement in the text that follows.
- *2 See Appendix 3 for Commissioner biographies and a
- *3 Publication consisted of two documents: Major Themes
and Implications and Supporting Research and Analysis.
- *4 All of this Commission's reports may be found on its
web page at www.nssg.gov.
- *5 See Appendix 2 for the full text of the Charter.
- *6 The recommendations are listed together in Appendix
1, pp. 118-123.
- *7 See New World Coming, p. 4, and the Report of the
National Defense Panel, Transforming Defense: National Security in the
21 st Century (Washington, DC: December 1997), p. 17.
- *8 See International Crime Threat Assessment (Washington,
DC: The White House, December 2000).
- *9 Note in this regard Stephen E. Flynn, "Beyond
Border Control," Foreign Affairs (November/December 2000).
- *10 See the Report of the Interagency Commission on Crime
and Security in U.S. Seaports (Washington, DC: Fall 2000).
- *11 See the Report of the U.S. Commission on Immigration
Reform (Washington, DC: 1997).
- *12 See Report of the Interagency Task Force on U.S.
Coast Guard Roles and Missions, A Coast Guard for the Twenty First-Century
(Washington, DC: December 1999).
- *13 We return to this problem below in Section IV.
- *14 The Chief Information Officer Council is a government
organization consisting of all the statutory Chief Information Officers
in the government. It is located within OMB under the Deputy Director for
- *15 We return to this issue in our discussion of the
Intelligence Community in Section III.F., particularly inrecommendation