- CANCER BACTERIA - A new entry
with documentation into the bacterial cause of cancer as posted in Wikipedia
- This new addition due to the efforts of Ron Falcone --
see his "home page" below
- THE CANCER BACTERIA HOMEPAGE
- By Ron Falcone
- It is our sincerest hope that cancer bacteria research
may play an important role in helping to eradicate ... members.aol.com/CAbacteria/homepage.html
- 4k - Cached - Similar pages
- Please pass on to interested others.
- Cancer Bacteria
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Cancer bacteria refers to bacteria (not viruses) known
or suspected to cause cancer. Some of these may in fact be opportunists:
bacteria present in the environment, that colonize a host made vulnerable
by cancer. As such, cancer would be the cause, and bacterial infections
the effect, rather than the other way around.
- In 1890, German bacteriologist Robert Koch defined four
requirements to prove that a given organism causes a given disease. These
requirements, known as Koch's postulates, guide research into the bacterial
cause of many diseases, including cancer, and establish a gold standard
of evidence consistent with "proof".
- 1 Known to cause cancer
- 2 Suspected to cause cancer
- 3 History
- 4 Cancer Bacteria as Contaminants
- 5 References
- 6 See also
- Known To Cause Cancer
- Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and duodenum.
In some cases it may cause stomach cancer and MALT lymphoma. Animal
models have demonstrated Koch's third and fourth postulates for the role
of Helicobacter pylori in the causation of stomach cancer.
- Suspected Of Causing Cancer
- Mycoplasma has been implicated in the formation of cancer.
Specific reports include:
- > Mycoplasma can "induce malignant transformation
of host mammalian cells" by means of "aberrant expression of
oncogenes and tumor repressors".
- > A "Mycoplasma hyorhinis-encoded protein known
as p37..(could) infect humans and may facilitate tumor invasiveness"
- > A "significantly high existence of Mycoplasma
sp. DNA" has been reported "in the tissues of patients with conventional
(renal cell carcinoma)" as opposed to normal controls.
- > "Mycoplasma infection can be detected in many
tumor tissues, continuous infection of mycoplasma can lead to transformation
of mammalian cells, up-regulating expression of oncogenes, and some biologic
changes of tumor cells, suggesting association of Mycoplasma infection
- A number of other bacteria have associations with cancer,
although their possible role in carcinogenesis is unclear. Salmonella typhi
is associated with gallbladder cancer, Streptococcus bovis is associated
with colorectal cancer and Chlamydia pneumoniae with lung cancer.
- In 1890, the Scottish pathologist William Russell reported
circumstantial evidence for the bacterial cause of cancer . In 1926,
Canadian physician Thomas Glover reported that he could consistently isolate
a specific bacterium from the neoplastic tissues of animals and humans.
One review summarized Glover's report as follows:
- "The author reports the isolation of a pleomorphic
organism from various types of cancer which can be grown in pure cultures
in its several phases. He produced a serum from it which has given remarkable
results in a series of 50 reported cases. This is very important, if true.
We suppose the Cancer Society will give an opinion later on the reliability
of the findings."
- Glover was asked to continue his work at the Public Health
Service (later incorporated into the National Institutes of Health) completing
his studies in 1929 and publishing his findings in 1930. He asserted
that a vaccine or anti-serum manufactured from his bacterium could be used
to treat cancer patients with varying degrees of success . According
to historical accounts, scientists from the Public Health Service challenged
Glover's claims and asked him to repeat his research to better establish
quality control. Glover refused and opted to continue his research
independently; not seeking consensus, Glover's claims and results led to
controversy and are today, not given serious merit.
- In 1931, Cornell University pathologist Elise L'Esperance
reported the presence of acid-fast, Tuberculosis-like organisms in Hodgkin's
disease, French physician George Mazet implicated a bacterial association
with leukemia and also Hodgkin's disease and a number of other physicians
or scientists, including the German von Brehmer, the Irish physician
W.M. Crofton and EJ Villesquez of France all reported similar cancer
bacteria associations. In one case, an Italian scientist named Clara Fonti
reportedly inoculated herself in the chest wall with a metastasizing mammary
carcinoma and claimed to note neoplastic changes in her own tissues.
- In some cases, claims were made that anti-sera derived
from cancer associated bacteria could be used therapeutically. In 1953,
for example, the results of an anti-bacterial vaccine trial involving 100
patients said to be diagnosed with different stages and types of cancer
was reported by Dr. John E. White at the 6th International Congress of
Microbiology in Rome, Italy. White said there were a number of favorable
responses, but critics noted that the trial was not blinded, supervised,
or monitored by any independent mainstream cancer agency, and the actual
severity as well as diagnostic authenticity of the cancers-in-question
- In 1950, a Newark based physician named Virginia Livingston
published a paper claiming that a specific Mycobacterium was associated
with neoplasia. Livingston believed that this organism was intermittently
acid-fast, highly pleomorphic, and taxonomically related to the leprae
and tuberculin bacilli. She, along with several colleagues including microbiologist
Eleanor-Alexander Jackson, continued research throughout the 1950's and
eventually proposed a name for the bacterium, calling it Progenitor Cryptocides.
Livingston also proposed a treatment protocol based on anti-microbial vaccines
similar in concept to Glover's which she reported on in a 1965 publication.
- Other investigators were not sure of the exact classification
of cancer bacteria, and had claimed to find different taxonomies other
than Mycobacteria. For example, I.C. Diller who had reported an increased
"number of tumors" occurring in mice "injected with a bacterium"
isolated from mice and human cancers, referred to several possible classifications.
These included a Cornybacterium "of undetermined species", Staphylococcus
epidermidis and an organism related only antigenically to Mycobacteria.
She cited the "extreme pleomorphism" and "tendency to stabilize
in forms that mimic other bacteria" as reasons for the difficulty
- Beginning in 1963, the National Cancer Institute (NCI)
launched its own preliminary investigation of cancer bacteria, and until
1974, conducted several studies which focused primarily on the culturing
of cancer bacteria from animal and/or human cancers in an attempt to establish
a guilt-by-association relationship between the two. The NCI investigations
involved several different species, including Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma
fermentans, Mycoplasma neurolyticum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae and many
of the studies involved examination of leukemic bloods.
- The NCI studies produced various results. In one study,
researchers concluded there was no statistically relevant oncogenic association
between certain Mycoplasma species. In another, investigators concluded
there was "an association between Mycoplasma and acute leukemia".
Another NCI paper stated the "importance of (Mycoplasma/cancer) association(s)"
because "latent mycoplasma were repeatedly isolated from mice under
stress with malignant disease".
- As of October 1986, however, the NCI's position was that
its bacteria investigation failed to reach a definitive conclusion.
NCI and other mainstream investigators---while questioning the actual role
of cancer bacteria in oncogenesis---believed that such bacteria were common
invaders of cancer tissues, acting more as parasites rather than involved
in causality. Mycoplasma are known to be notorious contaminants of laboratory
culture and other medium. Throughout the 1980's and up to the present time,
the NCI has been actively involved in cancer virus research.
- In 1974, Livingston reported an association between cancer-related
bacteria and human choriogondatropin (HCG), a growth hormone commonly associated
with pregnancy. Hernan Acevedo, a Pittsburgh-based scientist, also
reported that HCG could be synthesized from cancer-related bacteria.
- Livingston believed that HCG was a common denominator
linking cancer and bacteria, and alleged that cancer tissues utilize HCG
for the purpose of avoiding immunosurveilance, basing her ideas on data
suggesting the human embryo uses HCG in the same fashion. In a later
critique of Livingston's claims and methods, the NCI argued that "HCG
is produced by a variety of bacteria from both cancer patients, and normal
- Acevedo reported in additional studies that "the
synthesis and expression of hCG, its subunits, and its fragments, is a
common biochemical denominator of cancer, providing the scientific basis
for studies of its prevention and/or control by active and/or passive immunization
against these sialoglycoproteins".
- In 1990, the NCI published a review of Livingston's theories
and said that her methods of classifying the cancer bacterium she referred
to as "Progenitor cryptocides" had contained "some remarkable
errors". Independent analysis of this organism using DNA-DNA hybridization
technology revealed its actual classification as Staphylococcus epidermidis,
not a Mycobacterium as Livingston had stated.
- According to Dr. Alva Johnson, a professor at the Department
of Microbiology and Immunology at the Eastern Virginia Medical School who
had independently reviewed the NCI critique, Livingston had not preserved
earlier samples of her cultures taken from the blood and tissues of cancer
patients in which she claimed existed Mycobacteria and instead, routinely
screened cancer patients' urine samples for HCG-positive bacteria assuming
these were positive for Mycobacteria. Johnson noted that Livingston's
assumptions reflected "sloppy" science, and adversely affected
the protocols needed to build consensus among medical peers.
- Livingston died in 1990 and five years later, Dr. Shyh-Ching
Lo, a researcher with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington,
D.C., published a paper titled "Mycoplasmas and oncogenesis: persistent
infection and multistage malignant transformation". According
to Lo, Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma penetrans induced malignant
cell transformation in cultured mouse embryo cells, C3H/10T1/2 (C3H) after
6 serial passages lasting 1 wk per passage. He further wrote that up until
the 11th passage, "malignant changes were reversible if mycoplasmas
were eradicated by antibiotic treatment", but at 18 passages, "irreversible..transformation"
- Subsequent to Lo's paper and as of 2007, there were a
minimum of 14 published papers in the peer reviewed literature claiming
to document an association between various species of Mycoplasma and various
animal and human cancers.
- Cancer Bacteria As Contaminants
- Scientists have long suspected that cancer bacteria may
be contaminants which infiltrate tissue cell cultures, or invade cancer
tissues after the disease has started, as opposed to being a direct cause
of cancer. Research is now under way in an effort to clarify this relationship.
- In a recent study, investigators examined deep tissue
specimens taken from patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Using
rRNA gene sequencing, and addressing the issue of contamination with sterilizing
immersion techniques, the investigators noted a "diversity of bacterial
taxa...including several putatively novel species." Some of the bacterial
species were "isolated only from either the tumorous or nontumorous
tissue" indicating "a degree of restriction." The investigators
said that "Successful surface decontamination of the specimens indicates
that the bacteria detected were from within the tissue".
- Rather than finding one taxonomy, the researchers noted
a "diversity of bacterial groups" and concluded that the "significance
of these bacteria within the tumor warrants further study".
- 1 ^ Egi, Y; Ito M, Tanaka S et al. (May 2007). "Role
of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic inflammation in gastric cancer
in the cardia". Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 37 (5): 365-369.
- 2 ^ Peter S, Beglinger C (2007). "Helicobacter
pylori and gastric cancer: the causal relationship". Digestion 75
(1): 25-35. DOI:10.1159/000101564. PMID 17429205.
- 3 ^ Morgner, A; Bayerdörffer E, Neubauer A, Stolte
M (Mar 2000). "Gastric MALT lymphoma and its relationship to Helicobacter
pylori infection: management and pathogenesis of the disease". Microscopy
research and technique 48 (6): 349-356.
- 4 ^ Watanabe, T; Tada M, Nagai H et al. (Sep 1998).
"Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer in mongolian
gerbils". Gastroenterology 115 (3): 642-648.
- 5 ^ Huang, S; Li JY, Wu J et al. (Apr 2001). "Mycoplasma
infections and different human carcinomas". World Journal of Gastroenterology
7 (2): 266-269.
- 6 ^ Zhang S, et al.(2006). "Alteration of gene
expression profiles during mycoplasma-induced malignant cell transformation."
BMC Cancer, May, 4;6:116.
- 7 ^ Ketcham et al. (2005). "p-37 Induces tumor
invasiveness", Mol Cancer Ther, Jul;4(7):1031.
- 8 ^ Pehlivan S, et al. (2005). "Can mycoplasma-mediated
oncogenesis be responsible for formation of conventional renal cell carcinoma?"
- 9 ^ Ning JY, Shou CC. (2004). "Mycoplasma infection
and cancer". Ai Zheng, May;23(5):602-4.
- 10 ^ Mager, DL (Mar 2006). "Bacteria and cancer:
cause, coincidence or cure? A review". Journal of Translational Medicine
4 (14). DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-4-14.
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management: Livingston-Wheeler therapy". CA: A Cancer Journal for
Clinicians 40: 103-108.
- 17 ^ L'Esperance E.(1931). "Studies in Hodgkin's
disease". Annal Surg, 93:162-8.
- 18 ^ Mazet, G. (June/August 1941). "Etude bacteriolgigue
sur la maladie d'Hodgkin". Montpellier Medicine
- 19 ^ von Brehmer, W. "Siphonosopra polymorpha
n. sp.: ein neuer microorganismus des blutes, seine beziehung zur tumorgenese".
Med Welt, 8:1178-1185.
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Viruses." Staples Press Ltd, London, England.
- 21 ^ Villesquez, E.J. (1955). "Le Parasitisme
Latent des Cellules du Sang chez l' Homme, en Particulier dans le Sang
des Cancreeux." Librarie Maloine, Paris, France.
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Amadeo Nicola.& c. Milan, Italy.
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properties and pathogenicity of certain microorganisms obtained from various
proliferative and neoplastic diseases." Am J Med Sci, 220:638-648.
- 24 ^ Livingston VW, Alexander-Jackson E. (1965). "An
experimental biologic approach to the treatment of neoplastic disease".
J Am Med Wom Assoc, 20:858-866.
- 25 ^ Diller, I.C. (1974). "Tumor Incidence in
ICR/Albino and C57/B16JNIcr Male Mice Injected With Organisms Cultured
From Mouse Malignant Tissues". Growth, 38:507-517.
- 26 ^ Personal communication from: Carol Case, Chief,
Public Inquiries section, Office of Cancer Communications, National Cancer
- 27 ^ Source: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
- 28 ^ Ebbesen, P. and Lind, K. (1969). "Lack of
Evidence for Oncogenic or Amyloid Inducing Qualities of Mycoplasma Neurolyticum
Inoculated Into Balb/C Mice". Acta Path Micorbiol Scand, 76:594-600.
- 29 ^ Barile, M.F., et al. (1965). "Isolation of
Mycoplasma orale From Leukemic Bone Marrow and Blood by Direct Culture".
- 30 ^ Tully, J. (1967). "Mycoplasma In Leukemic
and Nonleukemic Mice". Ann NY Acad Sci, July 28;143(1):345-352.
- 31 ^ Case, ibid.
- 32 ^ Livingston, V.W. (1974). "Some cultural,
immunological, and biochemical properties of Progenitor cryptocides."
Trans NY Acad Sci, 36:569-582.
- 33 ^ Acevedo, H.F. et al. (1978). "Immunohistochemical
localization of a choriogonadotropin-like protein in bacteria isolated
from cancer patients". Cancer, 41:1217-1229.
- 34 ^ White, A and Loke Y. (1978). "Increased Sialylation
of Surface Glycopeptides of Human Trophoblasts Compared with Fetal Cells
from the Same Conceptus". J Exp Med, 148:1087-92.
- 35 ^ Acevedo H.F., et al. (1995). "Human chorionic
gonadotropin-beta subunit gene expression in cultured human fetal and cancer
cells of different types and origins," Cancer, 76:1476-1475, Oct 15.
- 36 ^ Personal communication from: Dr. Alva Johnson,
Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, May
- 37 ^ ibid.
- 38 ^ Lo SC, et al. (1995). "Mycoplasmas and oncogenesis:
persistent infection and multistage malignant transformation". Proc
Natl Acad Sci, 92(22):10197-10201.
- 39 ^ Hooper, S.J. et al. (2006). "Viable Bacteria
Present within Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tissue". Journal of Clinical
- Alan Cantwell M.D.
- author of, The Cancer Microbe: The Hidden Killer in Cancer,
AIDS, and other Immunologic Diseases, and
- Four Women Against Cancer: Bacteria, Cancer and the Origin