- "We Have Some Planes"
- The 9/11 Commission's Report provides an almost visual
description of the Arab hijackers. It depicts in minute detail events occurring
inside the cabin of the four hijacked planes.
- In the absence of surviving passengers, this "corroborating
evidence", was based on passengers' cell and air phone conversations
with their loved ones. According to the Report, the cockpit voice recorder
(CVR) was only recovered in the case of one of the flights (UAL 93).
- Focusing on the personal drama of the passengers, the
Commission has built much of its narrative around the phone conversations.
The Arabs are portrayed with their knives and box cutters, scheming in
the name of Allah, to bring down the planes and turn them "into large
guided missiles" (Report, Chapter 1, http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report_Ch1.pdf
- The Technology of Wireless Transmission
- The Report conveys the impression that cell phone ground-to-air
communication from high altitude was of reasonably good quality, and that
there was no major impediment or obstruction in wireless transmission.
- Some of the conversations were with onboard air phones,
which contrary to the cell phones provide for good quality transmission.
The report does not draw a clear demarcation between the two types of calls.
- More significantly, what this carefully drafted script,
fails to mention is that, given the prevailing technology in September
2001, it was extremely difficult, if not impossible, to place a wireless
cell call from an aircraft traveling at high speed above 8000 feet:
- "Wireless communications networks weren't designed
for ground-to-air communication. Cellular experts privately admit that
they're surprised the calls were able to be placed from the hijacked planes,
and that they lasted as long as they did. They speculate that the only
reason that the calls went through in the first place is that the aircraft
were flying so close to the ground" (http://www.elliott.org/technology/2001/cellpermit.htm
- Expert opinion within the wireless telecom industry casts
serious doubt on "the findings" of the 9/11 Commission. According
to Alexa Graf, a spokesman of AT&T, commenting in the immediate wake
of the 9/11 attacks:
- "it was almost a fluke that the [9/11] calls reached
their destinations... From high altitudes, the call quality is not very
good, and most callers will experience drops. Although calls are not reliable,
callers can pick up and hold calls for a little while below a certain altitude"
( http://wirelessreview.com/ar/wireless_final_contact/ )
- New Wireless Technology
- While serious doubts regarding the cell calls were expressed
in the immediate aftermath of 9/11, a new landmark in the wireless telecom
industry has further contributed to upsetting the Commission's credibility.
Within days of the release of the 9/11 Commission Report in July, American
Airlines and Qualcomm, proudly announced the development of a new wireless
technology --which will at some future date allow airline passengers using
their cell phones to contact family and friends from a commercial aircraft
(no doubt at a special rate aerial roaming charge) (see http://www.qualcomm.com/press/releases/2004/040715_aa_testflight.html
- "Travelers could be talking on their personal cellphones
as early as 2006. Earlier this month [July 2004], American Airlines conducted
a trial run on a modified aircraft that permitted cell phone calls."
(WP, July 27, 2004)
- Aviation Week (07/20/04) described this new technology
in an authoritative report published in July 2004:
- "Qualcomm and American Airlines are exploring [July
2004] ways for passengers to use commercial cell phones inflight for air-to-ground
communication. In a recent 2-hr. proof-of-concept flight, representatives
from government and the media used commercial Code Division Multiple Access
(CDMA) third-generation cell phones to place and receive calls and text
messages from friends on the ground.
- For the test flight from Dallas-Fort Worth, the aircraft
was equipped with an antenna in the front and rear of the cabin to transmit
cell phone calls to a small in-cabin CDMA cellular base station. This "pico
cell" transmitted cell phone calls from the aircraft via a Globalstar
satellite to the worldwide terrestrial phone network"
- Needless to say, neither the service, nor the "third
generation" hardware, nor the "Picco cell" CDMA base station
inside the cabin (which so to speak mimics a cell phone communication tower
inside the plane) were available on the morning of September 11, 2001.
- The 911 Commission points to the clarity and detail of
these telephone conversations.
- In substance, the Aviation Week report creates yet another
embarrassing hitch in the official story.
- The untimely July American Airlines / Qualcomm announcement
acted as a cold shower. Barely acknowledged in press reports, it confirms
that the Bush administration had embroidered the cell phone narrative (similar
to what they did with WMDs) and that the 9/11 Commission's account was
either flawed or grossly exaggerated.
- Altitude and Cellphone Transmission
- According to industry experts, the crucial link in wireless
cell phone transmission from an aircraft is altitude. Beyond a certain
altitude which is usually reached within a few minutes after takeoff, cell
phone calls are no longer possible.
- In other words, given the wireless technology available
on September 11 2001, these cell calls could not have been placed from
- The only way passengers could have got through to family
and friends using their cell phones, is if the planes were flying below
8000 feet. Yet even at low altitude, below 8000 feet, cell phone communication
is of poor quality.
- The crucial question: at what altitude were the planes
traveling, when the calls were placed?
- While the information provided by the Commission is scanty,
the Report's timeline does not suggest that the planes were consistently
traveling at low altitude. In fact the Report confirms that a fair number
of the cell phone calls were placed while the plane was traveling at altitudes
above 8000 feet, which is considered as the cutoff altitude for cell phone
- Let us review the timeline of these calls in relation
to the information provided by the Report on flight paths and altitude.
- United Airlines Flight 175
- United Airlines Flight 175 departed for Los Angeles at
- "It pushed back from its gate at 7:58 and departed
Logan Airport at 8:14."
- The Report confirms that by 8:33, "it had reached
its assigned cruising altitude of 31,000 feet." According to the Report,
it maintained this cruising altitude until 8.51, when it "deviated
from its assigned altitude":
- "The first operational evidence that something was
abnormal on United 175 came at 8:47, when the aircraft changed beacon codes
twice within a minute. At 8:51, the flight deviated from its assigned altitude,
and a minute later New York air traffic controllers began repeatedly and
unsuccessfully trying to contact it."
- And one minute later at 8.52, Lee Hanson receives a call
from his son Peter.
- [Flight UAL 175] "At 8:52, in Easton, Connecticut,
a man named Lee Hanson received a phone call from his son Peter, a passenger
on United 175. His son told him: "I think they,ve taken over the cockpit"An
attendant has been stabbed" and someone else up front may have been
killed. The plane is making strange moves. Call United Airlines"Tell
them it,s Flight 175, Boston to LA.
- Press reports confirm that Peter Hanson was using his
cell (i.e it was not an air phone). Unless the plane had suddenly nose-dived,
the plane was still at high altitude at 8.52. (Moreover, Hanson's call
could have been initiated at least a minute prior to his father Lee Hanson
picking up the phone.)
- Another call was received at 8.52 (one minute after it
deviated from its assigned altitude of 31,000 feet). The Report does not
say whether this is an air phone or a cell phone call:
- "Also at 8:52, a male flight attendant called a
United office in San Francisco, reaching Marc Policastro. The flight attendant
reported that the flight had been hijacked, both pilots had been killed,
a flight attendant had been stabbed, and the hijackers were probably flying
the plane. The call lasted about two minutes, after which Policastro and
a colleague tried unsuccessfully to contact the flight."
- It is not clear whether this was a call to Policastro's
cell phone or to the UAL switchboard.
- At 8:58, UAL 175 "took a heading toward New York
- "At 8:59, Flight 175 passenger Brian David Sweeney
tried to call his wife, Julie. He left a message on their home answering
machine that the plane had been hijacked. He then called his mother, Louise
Sweeney, told her the flight had been hijacked, and added that the passengers
were thinking about storming the cockpit to take control of the plane away
from the hijackers.
- At 9:00, Lee Hanson received a second call from his son
- It,s getting bad, Dad"A stewardess was stabbed"They
seem to have knives and Mace"They said they have a bomb"It,s
getting very bad on the plane"Passengers are throwing up and getting
sick"The plane is making jerky movements"I don,t think the pilot
is flying the plane"I think we are going down"I think they intend
to go to Chicago or someplace and fly into a building"Don,t worry,
Dad" If it happens, it,ll be very fast"My God, my God.
- The call ended abruptly. Lee Hanson had heard a woman
scream just before it cut off. He turned on a television, and in her home
so did Louise Sweeney. Both then saw the second aircraft hit the World
Trade Center.50 At 9:03:11, United Airlines Flight 175 struck the South
Tower of the World Trade Center. All on board, along with an unknown number
of people in the tower, were killed instantly."
- American Airlines Flight 77
- American Airlines Flight 77 was scheduled to depart from
Washington Dulles for Los Angeles at 8:10... "At 8:46, the flight
reached its assigned cruising altitude of 35,000 feet."
- At 8:51, American 77 transmitted its last routine radio
communication. The hijacking began between 8:51 and 8:54. As on American
11 and United 175, the hijackers used knives (reported by one passenger)
and moved all the passengers (and possibly crew) to the rear of the aircraft
(reported by one flight attendant and one passenger). Unlike the earlier
flights, the Flight 77 hijackers were reported by a passenger to have box
cutters. Finally, a passenger reported that an announcement had been made
by the "pilot that the plane had been hijacked....
- On flight AA 77, which allegedly crashed into the Pentagon,
the transponder was turned off at 8:56am; the recorded altitude at the
time the transponder was turned off is not mentioned. According to the
Commission's Report, cell calls started 16 minutes later, at 9:12am, twenty
minutes before it (allegedly) crashed into the Pentagon at 9.32am:
- " [at 9.12] Renee May called her mother, Nancy May,
in Las Vegas. She said her flight was being hijacked by six individuals
who had moved them to the rear of the plane."
- According to the Report, when the autopilot was disengaged
at 9:29am, the aircraft was at 7,000 feet and some 38 miles west of the
Pentagon. This happened two minutes before the crash.
- Most of the calls on Flight 77 were placed between 9.12am
and 9.26am, prior to the disengagement of automatic piloting at 9.29am.
The plane could indeed have been traveling at either a higher or a lower
altitude to that reached at 9.29. Yet, at the same time there is no indication
in the Report that the plane had been traveling below the 7000 feet level,
which it reached at 9.29am.
- At some point between 9:16 and 9:26, Barbara Olson called
her husband, Ted Olson, the solicitor general of the United States. [using
- (Report p 7, see http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report_Ch1.pdf
- United Airlines Flight 93
- UAL flight 93 was the only one of the four planes that,
according to the official story, did not crash into a building. Flight
93 passengers, apparently: "alerted through phone calls, attempted
to subdue the hijackers. and the hijackers crashed the plane [in Pennsylvania]
to prevent the passengers gaining control." ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Airlines_flight_93
). Another version of events, was that UAL 93 was shot down.
- According to the Commission's account:
- "the first 46 minutes of Flight 93,s cross-country
trip proceeded routinely. Radio communications from the plane were normal.
Heading, speed, and altitude ran according to plan. At 9:24, Ballinger,s
warning to United 93 was received in the cockpit. Within two minutes, at
9:26, the pilot, Jason Dahl, responded with a note of puzzlement: "Ed,
confirm latest mssg plz"Jason.70 The hijackers attacked at 9:28. While
traveling 35,000 feet above eastern Ohio, United 93 suddenly dropped 700
feet. Eleven seconds into the descent, the FAA,s air traffic control center
in Cleveland received the first of two radio transmissions from the aircraft...."
- At least ten cell calls are reported to have taken place
on flight 93.
- The Report confirms that passengers started placing calls
with cell and air phones shortly after 9.32am, four minutes after the Report's
confirmation of the plane's attitude of 35,000 feet. These cell calls started
some 9 minutes before the Cleveland Center lost United 93,s transponder
signal (9.41) and more than 30 minutes before the crash in Pennsylvania
- "At 9:41, Cleveland Center lost United 93,s transponder
signal. The controller located it on primary radar, matched its position
with visual sightings from other aircraft, and tracked the flight as it
turned east, then south.164"
- This suggests that the altitude was known to air traffic
control up until the time when the transponder signal was lost by the Cleveland
Center. (Radar and visual sightings provided information on its flight
path from 9.41 to 10.03.)
- Moreover, there was no indication from the Report that
the aircraft had swooped down to a lower level of altitude, apart from
the 700 feet drop recorded at 9.28. from a cruising altitude of 35,000
- "At 9:32, a hijacker, probably Jarrah, made or attempted
to make the following announcement to the passengers of Flight 93:"Ladies
and Gentlemen: Here the captain, please sit down keep remaining sitting.
- We have a bomb on board. So, sit. The flight data recorder
(also recovered) indicates that Jarrah then instructed the plane,s autopilot
to turn the aircraft around and head east. The cockpit voice recorder data
indicate that a woman, most likely a flight attendant, was being held captive
in the cockpit. She struggled with one of the hijackers who killed or otherwise
- Shortly thereafter, the passengers and flight crew began
a series of calls from GTE airphones and cellular phones. These calls between
family, friends, and colleagues took place until the end of the flight
and provided those on the ground with firsthand accounts. They enabled
the passengers to gain critical information, including the news that two
aircraft had slammed into the World Trade Center.77...At least two callers
from the flight reported that the hijackers knew that passengers were making
calls but did not seem to care.
- The hijackers were wearing red bandanas, and they forced
the passengers to the back of the aircraft.80 Callers reported that a passenger
had been stabbed and that two people were lying on the floor of the cabin,
injured or dead"possibly the captain and first officer. One caller
reported that a flight attendant had been killed.81 One of the callers
from United 93 also reported that he thought the hijackers might possess
a gun. But none of the other callers reported the presence of a firearm.
One recipient of a call from the aircraft recounted specifically asking
her caller whether the hijackers had guns.
- The passenger replied that he did not see one. No evidence
of firearms or of their identifiable remains was found at the aircraft,s
crash site, and the cockpit voice recorder gives no indication of a gun
being fired or mentioned at any time.
- We believe that if the hijackers had possessed a gun,
they would have used it in the flight,s last minutes as the passengers
fought back.82 Passengers on three flights reported the hijackers, claim
of having a bomb. The FBI told us they found no trace of explosives at
the crash sites. One of the passengers who mentioned a bomb expressed his
belief that it was not real. Lacking any evidence that the hijackers attempted
to smuggle such illegal items past the security screening checkpoints,
we believe the bombs were probably fake. During at least five of the passengers,
phone calls, information was shared about the attacks that had occurred
earlier that morning at the World Trade Center. Five calls described the
intent of passengers and surviving crew members to revolt against the hijackers.
According to one call, they voted on whether to rush the terrorists in
an attempt to retake the plane. They decided, and acted. At 9:57, the passenger
assault began. Several passengers had terminated phone calls with loved
ones in order to join the revolt. One of the callers ended her message
- "Everyone,s running up to first class. I,ve got
to go. Bye. The cockpit voice recorder captured the sounds of the passenger
assault muffled by the intervening cockpit door. Some family members who
listened to the recording report that they can hear the voice of a loved
one among the din.
- We cannot identify whose voices can be heard. But the
assault was sustained. In response, Jarrah immediately began to roll the
airplane to the left and right, attempting to knock the passengers off
balance. At 9:58:57, Jarrah told another hijacker in the cockpit to block
the door. Jarrah continued to roll the airplane sharply left and right,
but the assault continued. At 9:59, Jarrah changed tactics and pitched
the nose of the airplane up and down to disrupt the assault. The recorder
captured the sounds of loud thumps, crashes, shouts, and breaking glasses
- At 10:00:03, Jarrah stabilized the airplane. Five seconds
later, Jarrah asked, "Is that it? Shall we finish it off? A hijacker
responded, "No. Not yet. When they all come, we finish it off. The
sounds of fighting continued outside the cockpit. Again, Jarrah pitched
the nose of the aircraft up and down.At 10:00:26, a passenger in the background
said, "In the cockpit. If we don,t we,ll die! Sixteen seconds later,
a passenger yelled,"Roll it! Jarrah stopped the violent maneuvers
at about 10:01:00 and said, "Allah is the greatest! Allah is the greatest!
He then asked another hijacker in the cockpit," Is that it? I mean,
shall we put it down? to which the other replied, "Yes, put it in
it, and pull it down. The passengers continued their assault and at 10:02:23,
a hijacker said, "Pull it down! Pull it down! The hijackers remained
at the controls but must have judged that the passengers were only seconds
from overcoming them. The airplane headed down; the control wheel was turned
hard to the right.
- The airplane rolled onto its back, and one of the hijackers
began shouting "Allah is the greatest. Allah is the greatest. With
the sounds of the passenger counterattack continuing, the aircraft plowed
into an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, at 580 miles per hour,
about 20 minutes, flying time from Washington D.C. Jarrah,s objective was
to crash his airliner into symbols of the American Republic, the Capitol
or the White House. He was defeated by the alerted, unarmed passengers
- The Mysterious Call of Edward Felt from UAL 93
- Earlier coverage of the fate of UAL 93 was based in part
on a reported cell call from a passenger named Edward Felt, who managed
to reach an emergency official in Pennsylvania. How he got the emergency
supervisor's number and managed to reach him remains unclear.
- The call was apparently received at 9.58 am, eight minutes
before the reported time of the crash at 10.06 am in Pennsylvania:
- "Local emergency officials said they received a
cell phone call at 9.58 am from a man who said he was a passenger aboard
the flight. The man said he had locked himself in the bathroom and told
emergency dispatchers that the plane had been hijacked. "We are being
hijacked! We are being hijacked!" he was quoted as saying. A California
man identified as Tom Burnett reportedly called his wife and told her that
somebody on the plane had been stabbed. "We're all going to die, but
three of us are going to do something," he told her. "I love
- The alleged call by Edward Felt from the toilet of the
aircraft of UAL 93 was answered by Glenn Cramer, the emergency supervisor
in Pennsylvania who took the call.
- It is worth noting that Glenn Cramer was subsequently
gagged by the FBI." (See Robert Wallace`s incisive analysis published
in Sept 2002 by the Daily Mirror, (http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/WAL403A.html).
- Ironically, this high profile cell call by Ed Felt, which
would have provided crucial evidence to the 9/11 Commission was, for some
reason, not mentioned in the Report.
- American Airlines Flight 11
- Flight 11 took off at 7:59. Just before 8:14. The Report
outlines an airphone conversation of flight attendant Betty Ong and much
of the narrative hinges upon this airphone conversation
- There are no clear-cut reports on the use of cell phones
on Flight AA11. According to the Report, American 11 crashed into the
North Tower of the World Trade Center at 8.46.
- Concluding Remarks
- A large part of the description, regarding the 19 hijackers
relies on cell phone conversations with family and friends.
- While a few of these calls (placed at low altitude) could
have got through, the wireless technology was not available. On this issue,
expert opinion within the wireless telecom industry is unequivocal.
- In other words, at least part of the Commission's script
in Chapter 1 on the cell phone conversations, is fabricated.
- According to the American Airline / Qualcomm announcement,
the technology for cell phone transmission at high altitude will only be
available aboard commercial aircraft in 2006. This is an inescapable fact.
- In the eyes of public opinion, the cell phone conversations
on the Arab hijackers is needed to sustain the illusion that America is
- The "war on terrorism" underlying the National
Security doctrine relies on real time "evidence" concerning the
Arab hijackers. The latter personify, so to speak, this illusive "outside
enemy" (Al Qaeda), which is threatening the homeland.
- Embodied into the Commission's "script" of
911, the narrative of what happened on the plane with the Arab hijackers
is therefore crucial. It is an integral part of the Administration's disinformation
and propaganda program. It constitutes a justification for the anti-terror
legislation under the Patriot acts and the waging of America's pre-emptive
wars against Afghanistan and Iraq.
- © Copyright MICHEL CHOSSUDOVSKY 2004
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