- Hello Jeff and Patricia,
- Please forgive me for butting in, but I must clarify
- a few things, and I would also please like to pass
- some new data to you both. Please use this data as
- you wish. But I noticed in this thread...
- "...ask attending physician if it is nvCJD, sCJD
- Please be advised of these most recent findings
- about BSE and sporadic CJDs, now at six documented
- phenotypes/variants and with over 20 documented
- in sheep with scrapie, who knows with CWD and BSE,
- but I would assume more to come with CJD.
- With this devastating news about sporadic CJD and the
- USDA and the APHIS have not been telling us the truth
- mad cow in the USA, when the late Richard Marsh PROVED
- strain of TSE was indeed in the USA cattle some time
- I ask, why in the hell is this not making big news in
- The fact that with the new findings from Collinge et
- that BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype
- to an alternate phenotype which is indistinguishable
- type 2 PrPSc - the commonest sporadic CJD - I only ponder
- many of the sporadic CJDs in the USA are tied to this
- These new findings are very serious and should have
- a major impact on the way sporadic CJDs are now treated
- to the vCJD that was thought to be the only TSE tied
- beef in the medical/surgical arena.
- These new findings should have a major impact on the
- CJD is currently ignored, and should now be moved to
the forefront of
- research as with vCJD/nvCJD.
- The USA has many TSEs. The USA lacks sufficient testing
for TSEs in
- cattle, and the USA still refuses to rapid TSE test USA
cattle in sufficient
- numbers to find, when the late Dr. Richard Marsh had
- that mink had gone down with a TSE (TME), from being
- on 95%+ downer cattle.
- The GAO has also warned the industry and the FDA that
- ruminant-to-ruminant feed ban has to significantly improved
- expect to keep BSE/TSEs out of USA cattle. Scrapie has
- significantly, and CWD is spreading.
- All this should warrant/mandate that CJD/TSEs in humans
- in the USA be made reportable on a National basis, immediately...
- Kindest regards,
- Terry S. Singeltary Sr.
- CJD WATCH
- Subject: re-BSE prions propagate as either variant CJD-like
or sporadic CJD
- Date: Thu, 28 Nov 2002
- From: "Asante, Emmanuel A" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- To: "'email@example.com'" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
- Dear Terry,
- I have been asked by Professor Collinge to respond to
your request. I am a Senior Scientist in the MRC Prion Unit and the lead
author on the paper. I have attached a pdf copy of the paper for your attention.
Thank you for your interest in the paper.
- In respect of your first question, the simple answer
is, yes. As you will find in the paper, we have managed to associate the
alternate phenotype to type 2 PrPSc, the commonest sporadic CJD.
- It is too early to be able to claim any further sub-classification
- respect of Heidenhain variant CJD or Vicky Rimmer's version.
It will take further studies, which are on-going, to establish if there
are sub-types to our initial finding which we are now reporting. The main
point of the paper is that, as well as leading to the expected new variant
CJD phenotype, BSE transmission to the 129-methionine genotype can lead
to an alternate phenotype which is indistinguishable from type 2 PrPSc.
- I hope reading the paper will enlighten you more on the
subject. If I can be of any further assistance please to not hesitate to
ask. Best wishes.
- Emmanuel Asante
- <<Print version_cdf653.pdf>>
- Dr. Emmanuel A Asante
- MRC Prion Unit & Neurogenetics Dept.
- Imperial College School of Medicine (St. Mary's)
- Norfolk Place, LONDON W2 1PG
- Tel: +44 (0)20 7594 3794
- Fax: +44 (0)20 7706 3272
- PLEASE SEE FULL TEXT OF THIS ARTICLE -
- "I am wondering HOW they are disposing of the patient's
personal articles, instruments used on the patient, etc., etc. Are they
washing his/her bedding in the general laundry?" - Patrica Doyle,
- CJD/TSEs....Community Healthcare
- 4.45 When caring for known, suspect or at risk patients
in the community, the principles outlined in the section on hospital care
are equally applicable. Either in hospital or in community healthcare,
standard infection control procedures will minimize the risk of infection
transmission, not only to the care-givers, but also to members of the surrounding
community and population in general.
- 4.46 Clinical waste generated as a result of community
care-based treatment, e.g. swabs and sharps, should be handled as for any
clinical waste, and be disposed of by incineration. Guidance on the handling
of clinical waste has been published and a new edition is due in 1998 (see
- 4.47 Spillages of body fluids or waste material should
be handled as previously recommended (see paragraph 4.16).
- 4.48 Used or fouled bed linen (i.e. contaminated with
body fluids or excreta) should be removed from the bed and washed and dried
in accordance with convention (HSG 1995). Provided that care is taken,
bed linen is unlikely to represent an infection risk; however to further
reduce the risk, gloves should be worn and hands washed and dried after
contact. No further handling or processing requirements are necessary.
- 4.49 In the event that a known, suspect or at risk patient
becomes pregnant, no particular precautions need to be taken during the
pregnancy other than normal ante-natal care. However, during and after
the birth, particular precautions should be taken to reduce the risk of
transmission (see paragraph 4.14). If a home delivery is decided upon,
it is the responsibility of the midwife to ensure that any contaminated
material is removed and disposed of in line with correct procedures for
infected clinical waste.
- 4.50 Late stage CJD patients may well experience tissue
breakdown and the development of extensive pressure point sores. These
lesions should be dressed regularly, using standard infection control precautions,
and contaminated dressings disposed of as clinical waste by incineration.
- 4.51 The British Dental Association (BDA) has issued
general guidance on the development of practice infection control policies.
Individual practice infection control policies, if developed and implemented
efficiently, will minimise the risk of transmission of infection. Based
on the advice in this document, the BDA are understood to be preparing
specific advice for dental procedures on known, suspect or at risk patients.
- After Death
- 4.52 .........
- ROUND TABLE ON BSE -- WASHINGTON -- 27-28 JUNE 1989
- The summary does tend to give a particular slant to the
- BSE which is not totally sound. It is a possibility that
the agent of
- BSE may be in the cattle population in a number of countries
- apart from the USA and that clinical cases are occurring
- occasions. It is also important to off the possibility
- relationship between BSE and certain low-temperature
- For that reason a number of other countries apart from
the USA and
- France are at risk and, in particular, the Netherlands,
- Germany and Belgium. For these reasons it would be wise
to move to an
- international ban on the feeding of ruminant protein
- Clearly the summary also needs to refer to the incidence
of BSE in the
- UK and not solely to Great Britain. No doubt this has
been tidied up
- in your comments on the summary conclusions. It is a
pity that more of
- the comments put forward by Dr. Kimberlin have not been
included in the
- summary since his views on page 13 are succinct and valuable...
- Is there a Scrapie-like disease in cattle ?
- IN CONFIDENCE
- R.F. MARSH
- re-mink rancher 'Wisconsin' dead stock feeder using >95%
- downer or dead dairy and a few horses...
- Part of the Proceedings of an International Roundtable
- Spongiform Encephalopathy, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, June
- The possibility of infection with BSE in the United States,
- by studies on the disease in Great Britain, is judged
to be low on the
- basis of the following: (1) meat and bonemeals imported
into the United
- States from Great Britain between 1980 and 1988 were
used mainly in
- poultry, not ruminant feed; (2) the Scrapie Eradication
- reduced the prevalence of scrapie in the United States
- that in Great Britain; and (3) little, if any, rendered
- are used for protein supplements in cattle feed in the
- However, there is some evidence that there may already
be a scrapie-like
- disease in cattle in the United States. This evidence
- epidemiologic studies on an incident of transmissible
- encephalopathy (TME) in Stetsonville, Wis, in 1985. This
- used no commercially available animal by-product mixtures
in his feed,
- but instead slaughtered all animals going into the mink
- included mostly (>95%) "downer" dairy cows,
a few horses, but never
- sheep. To examine the possibility that cattle may have
been the source
- of this incident of TME, two 6-week-old Holstein bull
- inoculated intracerebrally with mink brain from the affected
- bulls developed neurologic disease 18 and 19 months after
- Both brains had spongiform degeneration at necropsy and
- transmissible back to mink by either intracerebral (incubation
- 4 months) or oral (incubation period of 7 months) inoculation
- Whereas TME has been thought to be caused by feeding
- sheep to mink, this theory has no conclusive evidence.
- inoculation of mink with several different sources of
sheep scrapie has
- never been successful, and an incubation period of less
than 12 months
- has never (sic) produced by intracerebral inoculation.
- mink encephalopathy can develop naturally by infection
- periods of less than 12 months.
- There is reason to believe that scrapie has not been
transmitted in the
- United States from sheep to cattle by rendered protein
- it was in Great Britain. However, some circumstantial
- that cattle may be a source of some TME infections. It
- that we increase our surveillance for a BSE-like disease
- cattle by encouraging state diagnostic laboratories to
- specimens of midbrain and brain stem from bovine brains
- rabies testing. If results of these tests are negative,
- tissues can then be examined for evidence of spongiform
- the gray matter.
- -Comments on bovine spongiform encephalopathy
- J Am Vet Med Assoc 197 (4): (1990)
- Letter to the Editor, Journal of the American Veterinary
- Association, August 15, 1990
- In my article, "Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
in the United States"
- (JAVMA, May 15, 1990, p 1677), I stated that "little,
if any, rendered
- animal products are used for protein supplements in cattle
feed in the
- United States." I have since learned that this is
incorrect, because of
- the recent trend of using less assimilated "by-pass"
proteins in cattle
- feed. A large amount of meat-and-bone meal is being fed
- cattle, and this change in feeding practice has greatly
- risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) developing
in the United
- Epidemiologic studies on BSE in Great Britain have indicated
- disease originated in cattle by exposure to the heat-resistant
- transmissible agent in compounded feed containing rendered
- protein. The most likely source of infection was assumed
- meat-and-bone meal prepared from scrapie-infected sheep,
but it is also
- possible that a heretofore unrecognized scrapie-like
infection of cattle
- could have been spread in the same manner.
- Because of concern for the possible development of BSE
in the United
- States, the American rendering industry discontinued
the processing of
- fallen and sick sheep last December. In my opinion, this
was a prudent
- policy, but one that will not prevent the possible transmission
- from cattle to cattle. As emphasized in my article, there
- evidence that BSE-like infection may already exist in
- The current practice of feeding meat-and-bone meal to
- the most important means to perpetuate and amplify the
- In Great Britain, BSE has produced a great economic and
- burden. We must take all reasonable measures to prevent
- developing in the United States. Therefore, the practice
of using animal
- protein in cattle feed should be discontinued as soon
- Waiting until the first case of BSE is diagnosed in the
- will certainly be "closing the barn door after the
horse is gone." With
- a disease having a 3- to 6-year incubation period, thousands
- would be exposed before we recognize the problem and,
if that happens,
- we would be in for a decade of turmoil.
- R. F. Marsh, DVM, PhD
- Madison, Wis
- PAGE 25